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Ar-Rahmaan – Keeper of the stores of Mercy


 

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? – How many will you deny?

By: Shahid Alam
IslamiCity* –

This Surah (chapter of the Quran) is entitled Ar-Rahmaan, the word with which it begins. This title, however, deeply relates to the subject matter of the Surah too, for in it, from the beginning to the end, the manifestations and fruits of God’s attribute of mercy and grace have been mentioned. 1


Ar-Rahmaan (Quran Chapter 55)

Faint reflections that they are of the Arabic original, translations can never be a substitute for the sublime Qur’an. I offer this translation in humility, deeply aware of its imperfections; and deeply indebted for the efforts of those who have preceded me in this endeavor: Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Abul Ala’ Maududi, Mohammad M. Pickthall, A. J. Arberry, Muhammad Asad, and M. A. S. Abdel Haleem.

Translated by M. Shahid Alam

All journeys begin in the name of Allaah.
Only He is Rahmaan and Raheem.

He is Rahmaan: He taught the Qur’aan.
He made Insaan: taught him Bayaan

The sun and moon move in exact orbits. 5
The plants and trees grow in adoration.

He raised the sky and set up the Meezaan 
so that you do not tip the Meezaan.
Then weigh your acts with justice: 
do not abandon the Meezaan.

The earth He laid out for your sustenance: 10
for you are fruits, palms with spades, 
grains, and herbs spreading fragrance.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Insaan He made from ringing potter’s clay:
and Jinns from fire without smoke.
15

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Rabb of the two risings in the East
and the two settings in the West.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

At His command the two seas come together:
between them a barrier they do not go over.
20

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Out of their depths come pearls and Marjaan.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

The ships on the sea are like mountains
lofty: their journey He sustains.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 25
How many will you deny?

All things on earth shall perish: evanescent. 
Only the Face of your Rabb abides:
lofty in Jalaal, bestowing Ikraam.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

All things that are in heaven, on earth, 
forever turn to Him. Every day He discloses
new signs of His splendor.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 30 
How many will you deny?

O vast legions of the two: Jinn and Insaan,
attend We will to your affairs: and settle your accounts!

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

O party of Jinns and Insaan, have you the power
to go past the rings of heaven and earth?
If you do, come take your chance. No!
Without Authority you may not advance.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Against your gambit, We shall erect 35
walls of fire and molten brass: ending your escapade.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Inflamed, the firmament will strip away
turning red like hide freshly tanned.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

On that day they will face no questions
Concerning their sins: Jinn or Insaan.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 40
How many will you deny?

By their faces will the sinners be spotted:
and seized by their forelocks and their feet.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings: 
How many will you deny?

This is the Hell – none other than this –
which the sinners denied in hubris.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Now, this is their world: they scurry
about, between boiling water and fire.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 45
How many will you deny?

They that are in awe, trembling
as they enter the Maqaam of their Rabb:
they shall have two gardens

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

with trees offering shade,

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings?
How many will you deny?

two brooks flowing gently, 50

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

fruits in abundance, two of each kind.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings?
How many will you deny?

On couches lined with brocades, they shall rest:
fruits from the two gardens at hand.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 55
How many will you deny?

Companions they shall have, their glances turning,
never touched before by Jinn or Insaan:

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

matchless, like rubies and Marjaan.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

What are the wages of Ihsaan – other than Ihsaan? 60

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

There are two gardens beyond the two:

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

each exceedingly green,

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 65 
How many will you deny?

watered abundantly by two streams, 

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

decked with fruits – dates and Rummaan,

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

overflowing with goodness and beauty, 70

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

dark-eyed companions, sheltered in pavilions,

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

never touched before by Jinn or Insaan.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 75
How many will you deny?

Together, they shall rest on cushions,
green: and carpets finely wrought.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Blessed is the name of your Rabb: 
lofty in Jalaal, bestowing Ikraam.


Glossary:

Ar-Rahmaan: the Keeper of the stores of Mercy. Bayaan: speech. Jinn: sentient creature, belonging to the Unseen Order. Ihsaan: kindness, goodness. Ikraam: bounty, generosity. Insaan: gender-free Arabic for human being. Jalaal: majesty, power, wrath. Maqaam: station, abode, standing place. Marjaan: small pearls or corals. Meezaan: the balance, order. Rabb: lord, creator, sustainer. Rummaan: pomegranates.

Note:

1 Syed Abu-Ala’ Maududi’s Chapter Introductions to the Qur’an

M. Shahid Alam is professor of economics at Northeastern University. His political essays are now available in a book, Is There An Islamic Problem (Kuala Lumpur: The Other Press, 2004). He may be reached at m.alam@neu.edu. Visit his webpage at: http://msalam.net.

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Posted by on December 25, 2007 in Articles

 

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Ar-Rahmaan – Keeper of the stores of Mercy


 

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? – How many will you deny?

By: Shahid Alam
IslamiCity* –

This Surah (chapter of the Quran) is entitled Ar-Rahmaan, the word with which it begins. This title, however, deeply relates to the subject matter of the Surah too, for in it, from the beginning to the end, the manifestations and fruits of God’s attribute of mercy and grace have been mentioned. 1


Ar-Rahmaan (Quran Chapter 55)

Faint reflections that they are of the Arabic original, translations can never be a substitute for the sublime Qur’an. I offer this translation in humility, deeply aware of its imperfections; and deeply indebted for the efforts of those who have preceded me in this endeavor: Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Abul Ala’ Maududi, Mohammad M. Pickthall, A. J. Arberry, Muhammad Asad, and M. A. S. Abdel Haleem.

Translated by M. Shahid Alam

All journeys begin in the name of Allaah.
Only He is Rahmaan and Raheem.

He is Rahmaan: He taught the Qur’aan.
He made Insaan: taught him Bayaan

The sun and moon move in exact orbits. 5
The plants and trees grow in adoration.

He raised the sky and set up the Meezaan 
so that you do not tip the Meezaan.
Then weigh your acts with justice: 
do not abandon the Meezaan.

The earth He laid out for your sustenance: 10
for you are fruits, palms with spades, 
grains, and herbs spreading fragrance.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Insaan He made from ringing potter’s clay:
and Jinns from fire without smoke.
15

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Rabb of the two risings in the East
and the two settings in the West.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

At His command the two seas come together:
between them a barrier they do not go over.
20

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Out of their depths come pearls and Marjaan.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

The ships on the sea are like mountains
lofty: their journey He sustains.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 25
How many will you deny?

All things on earth shall perish: evanescent. 
Only the Face of your Rabb abides:
lofty in Jalaal, bestowing Ikraam.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

All things that are in heaven, on earth, 
forever turn to Him. Every day He discloses
new signs of His splendor.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 30 
How many will you deny?

O vast legions of the two: Jinn and Insaan,
attend We will to your affairs: and settle your accounts!

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

O party of Jinns and Insaan, have you the power
to go past the rings of heaven and earth?
If you do, come take your chance. No!
Without Authority you may not advance.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Against your gambit, We shall erect 35
walls of fire and molten brass: ending your escapade.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Inflamed, the firmament will strip away
turning red like hide freshly tanned.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

On that day they will face no questions
Concerning their sins: Jinn or Insaan.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 40
How many will you deny?

By their faces will the sinners be spotted:
and seized by their forelocks and their feet.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings: 
How many will you deny?

This is the Hell – none other than this –
which the sinners denied in hubris.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Now, this is their world: they scurry
about, between boiling water and fire.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 45
How many will you deny?

They that are in awe, trembling
as they enter the Maqaam of their Rabb:
they shall have two gardens

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

with trees offering shade,

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings?
How many will you deny?

two brooks flowing gently, 50

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

fruits in abundance, two of each kind.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings?
How many will you deny?

On couches lined with brocades, they shall rest:
fruits from the two gardens at hand.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 55
How many will you deny?

Companions they shall have, their glances turning,
never touched before by Jinn or Insaan:

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

matchless, like rubies and Marjaan.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

What are the wages of Ihsaan – other than Ihsaan? 60

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

There are two gardens beyond the two:

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

each exceedingly green,

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 65 
How many will you deny?

watered abundantly by two streams, 

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

decked with fruits – dates and Rummaan,

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

overflowing with goodness and beauty, 70

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

dark-eyed companions, sheltered in pavilions,

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

never touched before by Jinn or Insaan.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 75
How many will you deny?

Together, they shall rest on cushions,
green: and carpets finely wrought.

Do you deny your Rabb’s blessings? 
How many will you deny?

Blessed is the name of your Rabb: 
lofty in Jalaal, bestowing Ikraam.


Glossary:

Ar-Rahmaan: the Keeper of the stores of Mercy. Bayaan: speech. Jinn: sentient creature, belonging to the Unseen Order. Ihsaan: kindness, goodness. Ikraam: bounty, generosity. Insaan: gender-free Arabic for human being. Jalaal: majesty, power, wrath. Maqaam: station, abode, standing place. Marjaan: small pearls or corals. Meezaan: the balance, order. Rabb: lord, creator, sustainer. Rummaan: pomegranates.

Note:

1 Syed Abu-Ala’ Maududi’s Chapter Introductions to the Qur’an

M. Shahid Alam is professor of economics at Northeastern University. His political essays are now available in a book, Is There An Islamic Problem (Kuala Lumpur: The Other Press, 2004). He may be reached at m.alam@neu.edu. Visit his webpage at: http://msalam.net.

 
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Posted by on December 25, 2007 in Articles

 

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The Prophet of Mercy


 

About Muhammad – Head of the state as well as the Church, he was Caesar and Pope in one; but, he was pope without the pope`s claims, and Caesar without the legions of Caesar – Reverend R Bosworth Smith

Quba, the first mosque of Islam, was originally built by the Prophet Mohammad and his fellow emigrants from Makkah on their arrival in Madinah in 622. That year marks the beginning of both the Muslim era and the Muslim calendar.

For thirteen years in his birthplace of Makkah, the Prophet Muhammad called people to the worship of the One True God, to do good and renounce all that was false. But the powers with interests to protect remained implacably hostile and made life intolerable for those who had submitted to the truth.

In constant search for fertile soil to plant the message of truth, the noble Prophet eventually migrated – not fled – northwards to Yathrib. The green oasis became known as the Madinah or the City of the Prophet and was to become the territorial base from which he won the hearts of multitudes and consolidated Islam’s place in the landscape of the peninsula.

The leaders of Makkah and a large part of its citizenry remained stubbornly hostile and sought – through wars, siege and alliances – to destabilise the fledgling community. The Prophet, who desired security and peace for people, negotiated a truce with the pagan Makkans on terms that many of his followers were deeply unhappy about. This was in the fifth year after the hijrah or migration to Madinah.

The truce turned out to be beneficial to the whole peninsula but the Makkans eventually broke it by mounting a bloody aggression against an ally of the state of Medinah. The Prophet could not overlook this breach and in the eighth year after the hijrah, he mobilised an impressive force and moved on Makkah. Ten thousand converged on the city, reaching there in the month of Ramadan, the month of fasting. The Quraysh realised that there was no hope of resisting, let alone of defeating, the Muslim forces. What was to be their fate – they who had harried and persecuted the believers, tortured and boycotted them, driven them out of their hearths and homes, stirred up others against them, made war on them, and killed many?

They were now completely at the mercy of the Prophet.

Revenge was easy. He could have laid waste the city and wiped out its inhabitants. But revenge was not his object. He did not lead his confident army into Makkah like any tyrant, full of arrogance, forgetting the Almighty, the Cause of all causes, and intoxicated with self-conceit.

Far from it. In the words of an early biographer, he entered with great humility and gratitude, prostrating himself repeatedly on the back of the camel he was riding, before the One God, thankful to Him for all He had provided, declaring an all-embracing amnesty and peace, in place of any thought of avenging past material or mental afflictions, and in fact demonstrating what God wills of Godly men: “… enter the gate prostrating and say ‘Amnesty’.” (The Quran, 2:58; 7:160).

He ordered Bilal, the Ethiopian, to go on the rooftop of the Ka’bah to call the adhan. The noble Prophet led the congregational prayer and then addressed the assembled citizens in the compound around the Ka’bah. He reminded them of what they had done to him and the Muslims, and said, “The arrogance and racial pride of the heathen days has been wiped out by God today. All human beings are descended from Adam, and Adam was made of clay.”

He recited the following verse of the Quran:

“0 human beings! We have indeed created you of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another. Surely the most honorable of you with God is the one among you who is most deeply conscious of Him. Surely, God is Knowing, Aware. (The Quran, 49:13

During the annual pilgrimage of Hajj, Muslims from all over the world gather in the plaza before Makkaha’s Sacred Mosque.

He then asked them in a voice full of compassion and tenderness:

‘0 people of Quraysh! What do you think I will do with you?’

One of them, Suhayl ibn Amr, who had fought against the Prophet, replied on behalf of the Makkans:

‘We think (you will treat us) well, noble brother, son of a noble brother.’

A radiant smile flashed across the face of the beloved Prophet of God and, in a spirit of magnanimity and tolerance, he said:

“I shall speak to you as Yusuf [Joseph] spoke unto his brothers: ‘There is no reproach against you today; God will forgive. He is the most Merciful and the most Compassionate.’ ” (Quran,12:92)

And he added:

‘No more responsibility burdens you today.
‘Idhhabuu… wa antum at
tulaqaa Go,
for you are free.’

Instantaneously Makkah was transformed, and overnight practically the entire population was won over to Islam. Nothing else could have won them over so profoundly and sincerely. They were not the inhabitants of a defeated and occupied country, but equals with the victors in rights as well as obligations. When a Messenger of God is the liberator of a town, nothing less exalted could be expected.

Without leaving a single companion of his to garrison the city, the Prophet soon returned to Madinah, leaving Makkah to be governed by a Makkan just converted. He never had to regret this later. This is how human hearts are won. In the entire episode, thirteen lives were lost.

‘I am the Prophet of Battle; I am the Prophet of Mercy,’ he is reported to have said. But it was destined for Muhammad to demonstrate that even in battle, he was the “Prophet of Mercy”.


The above account has been partly compiled from the book, Battlefields of the Prophet, by the renowned scholar Muhammad Hamidullah. This book lists the number of people killed in battle on both sides in all the engagements led by the Prophet. This number is given as less than 500 (see box). It is clear neither revenge nor hatred, greed nor domination was ever the driving passion in the wars that the noble Prophet engaged or were forced into. His purpose was primarily to win over people to the truth. He did not see his enemies as irredeemable infidels, but as potential forces for the good, for their own selves and for others. And he gave them the opportunity and the space to transform themselves.


Casualties in the main military expeditions led by the Prophet

Engagement

Opposing
force

Opposition
killed

Muslim
force

Muslims
killed

Badr

950

70

313

14

Uhud

3,000

22

700

70

Khandaq

12,000

8

3,000

6

Khaibar

20,000

93

1,500

15

Mu’ta

100,000

 

3,000

13

Hunain

 

70

12,000

70

Taif

 

 

12,000

12

 

Casualties in Twentieth Century Conflicts

 ‘I have lived throughout most of the twentieth century without, I must add, suffering personal hardship. I remember it only as the most terrible century in western history.’
 -Isaiah Berlin

 

War and Conflicts of the twentieth century

Military & Civilian deaths

Belgian repression in the Congo Free State 1886-1908

6,500,000

First World War 1914-1918

8,500,000

Russian Civit War 19f 7-1922

2,825,000

Stalin’s regime 1924-53

20,000,000

Italian campaign in Abyssinia 1935-1936

160,000

Second World War 1939-1945

71,000,000

Post-War Expulsion of Germans from East Europe 1945-47

2,384,000

Chinese Civil War 1945-1949

3,000,000

Mao Zedong’s regime 19491975

40,000,000

Korean War 1950-1953

1,200,000

Tito’s Regime 194480

250,000

French repression in Algeria 1954-1962

1,000,000

Vietnam War 1965-1973

1,033,000

Cambodia, Khmer Rouge 1975-1978

1,500,000

Soviet Union war against Afghanistan 1979-1989

2,000,000

Iran-Iraq War 1980-88

1,000,000

Gulf War 1990-1991

150,000

Bosnia 1992-1995

280,000

Sources: Britannica & other Internet resources including http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstatx.htm

 
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Posted by on December 16, 2007 in Articles

 

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