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Basics of Islam

Basics of Islam PART 1

Written By Mufti Jalal-Ud-Din Ahmad Amjadi
Translated by Haji Saleem Ghisa Rizvi
Prepared by
Molvi Kaleem Raza

Q) Who are you?
A) I am a Muslim

Q) Who do you call a Muslim?
A) Those who believe in one Allah and believes that Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam is the messenger of Allah and believes that the Holy Quran is the book of Allah
Q) What is the name of your religion?
A) Islam
Q) What is the message of Islam (Kalima)?
A) La ilaha illallaho Muhammadur Rasoolallah’ This is Called the first Kalima (Kalima Tayyab)
Q) What is the meaning of this Kalima?
A) There is no-one worthy of worship except Allah, Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam is the messenger of Allah
Q) Who is Allah?
A) Allah created humans, the sun, moon and every singe creation.
Q) What do you call someone who does not believe in Allah?
A) Whoever does not believe in Allah is an infidel (Kafir)
Q) What do you call someone who associates someone equal to or partner with Allah?
A) We call them Mushrik and Kafir (polytheist) and infidel)
Q) What is wrong in being a Kafir or Mushrik?
A) Allah will always be unhappy with a Kafir or Mushrik and after death they will remain in the fire or hell forever.
Q) Will Kafirs or Mushriks never go to paradise?
A) No, never, they will remain in hell for eternity.
Q) Who is Muhammad Sallallhu Alaihe Wasallam?
A) He is the messenger and Prophet of Allah Ta’ala. He is the highest ranking Prophet of all prophets. He is the greatest Prophet. We are all his followers, we are from his Ummat and he is our Prophet
Q) Where was our Prophet born?
A) He was born on the 12 th of Rabbi-ul-Awwal (approx.20 th April 571 ad.)
Q) What is the name of the Holy Prophet’s father?
A) It is Hazrat Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him)
Q) What is the name of our Holy Prophet’s mother?
A) It is Hazrat Amina (may Allah be pleased with her)
Q) What is the names of our Holy Prophet ‘s grandparents?
A) Our Holy Prophet’s grandfather’s name was Abdul Muttallib and his grandmother’s name (Maternal) was Wahub.
Q) How many years did our Holy Prophet stay alive?
A) After our Holy Prophet passes away, by the power of Allah he is still alive in his holy shrine. His presence in the world was 63 and 10 years In Madinah.
Q) On what date did our Holy Prophet pass away?
A) Our Holy Prophet Passed away from in front of the human eyes on the 12 th of Rabbi-ul Awwal (Approx. June 12 th 632ad…)
Q) Where is our Holy Prophet’s Holy Shrine?
A) It is in Madina Sharif , Which is approximately 300 km away from Makkah Sharif.
Q) How is it known that Muhammad Sallallhu Alaihe Wasallam is the Prophet of Allah Ta’ala?
A) It is proven by the fact that, our Holy Prophet called people towards Islam, he performed many miracles and he gave such knowledge of the unseen (llm-e-ghaib) which can only be given by none other than a Prophet of Allah.
Q) What do you call a person who does not believe in Muhammad Sallallhu Alaihe Wasallam as a Prophet?
A) he/she is a Kafir (Infidel)
Q) What if someone believes in Allah Ta’ala but does not believe in the Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallhu Alaihe Wasallam?
A) The person is also a Kafir.
Q) What is the reason for believing in the Holy Prophet?
A) The reason for believing in him is that he is a true Prophet sent by Allah Ta’ala believe in this, believe in every word of our Holy Prophet, love him and never disrespect or speak or think badly about him.
Q) What is the Holy Quran?
A) The Holy Quran is the book of Allah.
Q) How do we know that the Holy Quran is Allah’s book?
A) There has never been a book that someone could create which was anything like the Holy Quran this then proves that the Holy Quran is the book of Allah. If the Holy Quran had been written and created by someone other than Allah then it would have been easy to create something similar, which of course has not been possible.
Q) Who was the Holy Quran revealed to?
A) It was revealed to our Holy Prophet, MUHAMMAD Sallallaho Alaihe ‘Wasallam.
Q) Was the Holy Quran Revealed all at once, or in parts?
A) It was revealed bit by bit according to the need of the people.
Q) Over how long a period was the Holy Quran Revealed?
A) It was Revealed over 23 years.
Q) How was the Holy Quran Revealed?
A) Hazrat Jibraeel Alaiyhissallaam revealed, chapter and versed to our Holy Prophet, by the grace of almighty Allah. Our Holy Prophet memorized these passages and repeated them to the people. These people then memorized these passages and wrote then down.
Q) What is preached in the Holy Quran?
A) Everything is in the Holy Quran, i.e. regarding everything in all walks of life and the hereafter.
Q) Why was the Holy Quran Revealed?
A) To show people the right way in life. So people can recognise Allah almighty and his Holy Prophet and so that they can live life in a pure way.
Q) Who is Hazrat Jibraeel Alaiyhissalaam?
A) He is an angel who brought messages (wahi) from Allah Almighty to the Prophets.
Q) What are Angels?
A) They are created from light (Noor), by Almighty Allah; they are neither male or female. They don’t eat or drink. They worship Allah constantly. (Non Stop)
Q) Why are human created?
A) They are created to worship Almighty Allah.
Q) How do Muslims worship Allah?
A) They worship Allah in the following ways:
1) They pray Namaz (Salat)
2) They fast during the month of Ramadan.
3) Rich Muslim offer Zakat (charity) Muslim.
4) They perform pilgrimage (hajj)
Q) What is the best from of worshop?
A) Namaz (Salat) is the best form of worship.
Q) What is Namaz (Salat)?
A) Namaz (Salat) is a form of worshiping Allah Almighty which is performed a certain way. A person praying Namaz, stands facing Qibla (Holy Ka’aba) they recite verses from the Holy Quran and bow down before Allah. They praise Allah, and they pray Durood (blessings) for our Holy Prophet.
Q) How many times a day do we pray Namaz?
A) Namaz is prayed five times a day.
Q) What are the names for these five Namaz?
A) Fajr, Zohr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha.
Q) When is the Fajr Namaz preyed?
A) From the break of dawn until the beginning of sunrise
Q) When Zohr Namaz prayed?
A) Zohr Namaz is prayed from after midday until the beginning time of Asr Namaz.
Q) When is Asr Namaz prayed?
A) Asr Namaz is prayed from late-afternoon until sunset.
Q) When is Maghrib Namaz prayed?
A) Maghrib Namaz is prayed from sunset, upto a maximum of One and Quarter hours.
Q) When is Isha Namaz prayed?
A) Isha Namaz is prayed after Maghrib time has lapsed upto the beginning of Fajr time.
Q) What is the process called when one washes their hands, face, feet and pass water over their hair?
A) This process is called WUZU (Ablution)
Q) How is Wuzu performed?
A) Wuzu is performed in the following way:
I) Pray Bismillah then perform Miswak (a five inch wooden stick) by rubbing over your teeth if this is not available then use your index finger.
ii) Wash both hands up to your wrists three times (first right then left)
iii) Then perform a gargle by washing your mouth out three times (using your right hand).
iv) Then pass water into your nose with your left hand little finger in right nostril and left hand thumb in left nostril, this is done three times.
v) Wash your face thoroughly by gathering water in both your palms (form a cup) and start at top of your forehead where hair has the bottom of our chin, this is also done three times.
vi) Wash your right arm up to and including your elbow, and ensure water passes through your fingers and pass your arms and not the other way round. Perform three times and do same to your left arm three times.
vii) Perform masah (wiping) by wetting your fingers on both hands and then using three fingers (small, next and middle) on the both hands rub over your hair from forehead to back of neck. Use your index finger in each hand to clean your ears (right finger to clean right ear and left finger to clean the left ear). Use your thumbs to clean back of your ears. Clean each side of your neck by passing the back of your hand over it. This Masah is only done ONCE.
ix) Wash you feet upto and including the ankles making sure that water passes every gap between your toes. Perform this three times with right and then left.
x) Look up to the sky and pray ASHHADUAN LA’ILA HA ILLALLAHO MUHAMMAD-DUR’RASOOLULLAH and the lnna Anzalna surat .
Q) What is the purpose of Wuzu?
A) The purpose of Wuzu is to ensure that you clean all parts mentioned, and it is important that you get plenty of water over the parts that you are washing.
Q) If a part of your body, that you are washing whilst doing Wuzu gets wet, but water does not drip from that, then does that Wuzu count?
A) No, if this happens Wuzu will not count. As well as wetting certain parts of your body (which have been mentioned) water must drip from those parts.
Q) At the time of Namaz, a man stands and calls people to prayer, what is this called?
A) This called the Azaan.
Q) What is the method of praying the Azaan?
A) Azaan is performed in the following manner after performing ablution (Wuzu). The person praying Azaan stands in a high place facing the Qibla putting both index fingers in the ears (right ear, left index finger in left ear) and praying in a loud and clear voice.
Q) What is the dua prayed after hearing the Azaan?
A) ALLAHUMMA RABBA HAA’ZIHID DA’WATT’IT TAA’MATEH WA SALAATIL QAA’IMAH TIH AATE SAYYEDINA MUHAMMADNIL WASEELATA WALFAZEELATH WADARAJATR RAFEEATAH WAB’AS HO MAKAAMU M M AHMOODA’NILAZIH WA’ATTAHO WARZUKNA SHAFA’ATAHO YAWMAL QIYAAMAT’E INNAKA LATUKHLIFUL MI’AAD.
Click here for Dua of Azan for Audio and Arabic text
Q) A short while after Azaan, people pray something else in loud
voice, what is this called?
A) This is called Tasweeb and Salat.
Q) What are the words prayed for Tasweeb and Salat?
A) There are no specific words which have been Islamic law. One can pray any words which are appropriate. These days the Durood Sharif is used quite commonly.
Q) Before the Namaz commences, one man stands in the first row and prays something in loud voice. What is this called?
A) The words of Takbeer are exactly the same as the words used in Azaan.
There is only on slight difference and that is after HAAYAA ALAL FALAAH the words QUDQAAMATIS SALAAT are prayed twice in addition.
Q) When listening to the Takbeer should a person be sat down or stood up?
A) Takbeer should be listened to whi8lst sitting down, but when the person praying HAYYA ALAL FALAAH, then everyone should stand.
Q) What do you call a parson who prays the Azaan?
A) He is called a Mu’azzin.
Q) What do you call a person who prays the Takbeer?
A) He is called the Mukabbir.
Q) What do you call someone who prays Namaz on their own?
A) They are called a Munfarid (alone)
Q) When everyone prays Namaz together what is this called?
A) When people who pray Namaz together this is called Jamaat.
Q) What do you call the person who leads the Namaz?
A) The person who leads the Namaz is called an Imam.
Q) What is the name given to those who pray behind the Imam?
A) They are called Muqtadee.
Q) What is the name given to the position when you stand up from Rukooh?
A) It is called Quwmah.
Q) What is the name given to the sitting position when you come out from sijdah?
A) The sitting position in between the Sijdahs is called jalsa and the sitting position when praying Attahiyat is called Qaida.
Q) Should Bismillah be prayed before Attahiyat?
A) No.
Q) Should the Muktadee pray Ta’awwuz and Tasmeeh when he is praying behind the Imam?
A) The Muktadeeh should only pray Sanah, when he is hehind the Imam and then remain silent. He should not pray Ta’awwuz or Tasmeeh; neither should he pray Surah Fatiha or any other Surat.
Q) Should the Muktadeeh pray ‘Sami Allaho liman hamidah’ when rising from Rukooh?
A) No, but he should pray Rabbana lakal hamd’ after rising from Rukooh.
Q) After Namaz, what do people pray whilst counting on their fingers?
A) They pray, Subhanallah 33 times, Allhamdolillah 33 times and Allaho Akbar 34 times. There is a lot of sawab (reward) for praying this.

  Basics of Islam

Part 2:

Q. What is the religion of Islam?
A. Islam is that path upon which Allah can be recognized.

Q. How can a person find this path?
A. This path can be found by means of the messengers of Allah
Q. How many pillars of Islam are there?
A. There are five pillars of Islam.
Q. what are these?
A. they are as follows
1. To state “Kalima Shahadat” by the tongue and accept it by heart.
2. To perform Namaz
3. To give Zakat.
4. To fast in the month of Ramadan.
5. To perform hajj.
Q. What is the “Kalima shahadat” and what does it mean?
A. This is Kalima Shahadat:
“Ash hado al la ila ha illAllah o wahdaho la sharika lahoo wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan ab du hu wa Rasooluh”.
Meaning:” I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is his beloved servant and messenger.”
Q. If person prays the Kalima Shahadat by his tongue but does not believe it in his heart then is that person a Muslim?
A. A person like this is never a Muslim.
Q. What is ‘Iman’?
A. To believe all the things brought by our Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam from Allah is called Imaan.
Q. How many things should a Muslim believe in; which are compulsory?
A. There are seven things to believe in, these are mentioned in “Imaan Mufassal”
Amanto billahi wamala ikatihee wakutoobihi wa rusoolihi walyawmil akhiri wal qadri khayrihi washarrihi minAllah I Ta’ala walba’si ba’dal maut”

“I have believe in Allah, his Angels, his Books, his Messengers, on the day of judgment, and that goodness and non good things of destiny are all from Allah, and I also believe in being raised from the dead by Allah”.
Q. What is kufr?
A. To disbelieve in any of the things that are compulsory to believe in Islam.

Allah

Q. Regarding to Allah what should we believe?
A. Allah is one, pure, and clean from all defects. He is the only one worthy of worship. He has no beginning nor does he have an end. He has no partner.
The earth, sky, stars, sun, everything was created by him alone, and he is the master of all things. He has the ability to make a person rich or poor. He gives things life and death by his command. He is pure from and relations e.g. Father, mother, son, daughter, etc. He does face or body nothing is like Him, he is free from any position or place.
Q. Can we say Allah Miya?
A. No Allah miya should not be said.
Q. Who’s names are “Khaliq, Razzaq, Rahman”?
A. These names are all of Allah
Q. If people have names such as “Abdul Haq or Abdul Razzaq or Abdur Rahman or Abdul Qayyum can we call these people by names such as “Haq, Razzaq, Rahman, Qayyum ?
A. To do this is Haram (strictly forbidden)

The Angels of Allah

Q. What are angels?
A. Like mankind, angels are a. creation of Allah , but they are made of light. They are not of man or women. They do not eat or drink. They perform all the duties that Allah has given them.
Some angels write down a person’s good and bad dead in their graves; and some angels take Durood Sharif to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)
Q) What are the names of those angels who write down our good and bad deeds?
A. They are called “Kiraman and Katibeen”.
Q. What do we call them angels who ask questions to the dead in their graves?
A. They are called “Munkar and Nakeer”
Q. How many angels are there?
A. There are countless angels of Allah. The total amounts of angels are know by Allah and by revelation his Prophet (peace be upon him) but there are four popular angels.
Q. Can you name these four angels?
A. 1.”Hazrat Jibraeel” (Peace be on him) who passes the messages of Allah to his messengers.
2. “Hazrat Israfeel” (peace be on him) who is blow the horn on the day of judgment.
3. “Hazrat Mikaeel” (peace be on him)
who is controlling the rainfall and sending wealth.
4. “Hazrat Izraeel” (peace on him) who has a duty of taking out souls of living things.

THE BOOKS OF ALLAH

Q. How many books are there of Allah?
A. Allah has sent down a great deal of books the larger books were called Kitabs, and the smaller books were called Sahigas. However, there four very popular Kitabs.
Q. What are thes4e four Kitabs Called and upon whom were they revealed to?
A. 1. Tauret, revealed to Hazrat Musa (peace be upon him)
2. Zaboor, revealed to Hazrat Da’ud (peace be upon him)
3. Injeel, revealed to Hazrat Eisa (peace be upon him)
4. Quran, revealed to Hazrat Mohammad Mustafa Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam
Q. Are these books still available today?
A. All the books are available. However, apart form the Holy Quran the rest have been altered and tampered by the Jews and Christians and the originals cannot be obtained.
Q. Has the Holy Quran been tampered with?
A. No, definitely not. it is unaltered from the time of the Holy Prophet and will remain so, until the day of Qayamat.
Q. How can there be no change in the Holy Quran?
A. Because Allah has taken sole responsibility to protect it, no person can alter it.
Q. How many Sahifas have been revealed and to which messengers?
A. The total amount of Sahifas (booklets) are only known by Allah and by revealing, his Prophet. However some Sahifas were revealed to Hazrat Adam (peace be on him) some to Hazrat Shees(peace be on him) some to Hazrat Ibrahim (peace be on him) apart from these, there are still others too.

Rasool and Nabi (Messengers and Prophets)

Q. Who are Rasool and Nabi?
A. Rasool and Nabi are the beloved servants of Allah, and they are human. Allah has sent them down for the guidance of the people. They preach the command of Allah to His people. They show miracles and speak of things unseen (ghaib) they never lie, and are pure from all sins.
Q. Are angels Nabis too?
A. No. Nabis are human beings only.
Q. How many Nabis are there?
A. More or less than 124.000 or more or less 224.000. The correct number is known to Allah and by his showing our Holy Prophet (peace be upon him.)
Q. Who was the first Prophet?
A. Hazrat Adam (peace be upon him)
Q. Who was the last Prophet?
A. Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (peace be on him)
Q. Are there going to be any Nabis now?
A. There will be no Nabi now. This is because our holy Prophet (peace be upon him) is the seal of the prophets. If a person doubts this, then he is a Kafir
Q. Who is the highest ranked, of the Rasools?
A. The most highest ranked of all the Rasools and Nabis is our Prophet Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (peace be upon him). After Allah, he has the highest rank.
Q. Can we write (S.A.W) after the name of a Prophet?
A. The full Durood, peace be upon him should be written, to write (p.b.u.h.) (s.a.w.) Etc. is Haram.

Part 3:

Qayamat

Q. Which day do we call Qayamt?
A. Qayamat is the day when all man, animals, earth, skies, mountain, everything will be destroyed. Only Allah will remain.
Q. How will everything be destroyed?
A. Hazrat Israfeel (peace be on him) will blow the soor. From the sound of it everybody, everything will be destroyed, Even Hazrat Israfeel and his horn will be destroyed.
Q. What is a soor?
A Soor is a thing similar to that of a horn of an animal.
Q. When will Qayamat come?
A. The correct time for Qayamat is known by Allah and his showing, the Prophet (peace be upon him). All we know is that it will be upon the 10th of moharram, and that the day will be a Friday. However our Prophet (peace be upon him) has given us a great deal of sings for Qayamat. By seeing these signs the near time of Qayamat can be known.
Q. Can you mention a few signs of Qayamat?
A. There will be a great deal of sins done. People will openly do Haram acts, people will be cruel to there parents and be friendly with others, rich people will find it difficult to give Zakat, the knowledge of Islam will be studied for worldly luxuries, there will be a great increase in dance and music, bad people will be the leaders of the public, the once poorest people will be living in massive buildings and will have money, there will be massive earthquakes.

Taqdeer (Destiny)

Q. What is Taqdeer (Destiny)?
A. What ever happens in this world and what good or bad, people do. Allah has written this down from the very beginning. This is Taqdeer.
Q. Does this mean that whatever Allah has written down, is compulsory for us to do?
A. No! Allah has already written down what we are going to do. If bad deeds were written in a person’s destiny, this is because he/she will do sins in this world. If he/she was going to do good deeds then reward would be written down in his destiny.

Rising after being dead

Q. What do we mean by “rising after dead”?
A. After the day of Qayamat, when everything will be destroyed. When Allah wishes he will create Hazrat Israfeel and his horn. When the horn is blown the second time everything will be raised, and they will go to the field of Hashr. There will be an account for every person for their good and bad deeds and they will be rewarded according to this, i.e. Good people will go to Jannat (paradise), and bad people will go to Jahannum (hell).
Q. If every person believes in everything in Iman –Mufassal by his tongue and heart but does not perform Namaz, Roza, Zakat, or Hajj is he still counted as a Muslim?
A. He is a Muslim but such a person is a grave sinner, and against the command of Allah. Such a person is Fasiq and Fajir (wrongdoer)
Q. If a person prays Namaz, Fasts etc. And believes everything of Iman-Mufassal but is insulting and be rude to the Prophet (peace be upon him) is this person a Muslim?
A. No! Such a person is a Kafir (infidel) and murtad (apostate)
Q. If a person does not insult the Prophet but purposely believes that those who insult the Prophet are Muslim. Is such a Person regarded as a Muslim?
A. No! This person too is a Kafir and Murtad (renegade)

Chapter of action

Namaz

Q. What things are necessary before starting Namaz?
A. Before starting Namaz seven conditions need to be fulfilled.
Q. What are these seven conditions?
A. 1. The body has to be clean.
2. The clothes have to be clean.
3. The place of praying Namaz has to be clean.
4. Satr-e-awrat(covering the body)
5. It should be the time of praying Namaz
6. To face the Qibla.
7. To make the niyat (intention) for Namaz. These seven things are called “sharait-e-namaz”

The first necessary condition of Namaz

Q. What do we mean by keeping the body clean?
A. There should be no sign of ‘Najasat Haqiqiya’, or ‘Najasat Hukmi’
Q. How many types of impurities (Najasats) are there?
A. There are two types of impurities, one is ‘Najasat Haqiqiya’ and the other one is Najasat Hukmi.
Q. What is Najasat Haqiqiya?
A. This is an impurity which can be seen directly e.g. Urine, blood etc.
Q. What is Najasat Hukmi?
A. This is an impurity which cannot be seen directly, but is known because of the Islamic law, e.g. Those situations which makes it compulsory for a person to perform bathing or Wuzu.
There are two types of Najasat Hukmi,
1. Hadath-e-Asgar. (Small)
2. Hadath-e-Akbar. (large)
Q. How does the body become clean from hadath-e-Asgar?
A. When person performs Wuzu.

Wuzu

Q. What is Wuzu?
A. To wash both hands up till the wrists
To wash the mouth.
To wash the inside of the nose.
To wash the whole face.
To wash both arms including the elbows
To wipe the head with wet hands (masah).
To wash both feet up to the ankles. This is called Wuzu
Q. Are all the these things necessary in Wuzu?
A. No. Only those things are necessary which we call Farz (compulsory). If a Farz is missed then Wuzu will not be made some things are Sunnat. If the Sunnat is missed then Wuzu is still performed. But if you do these Sunnats then the reward will be given and the reward would be greater.
Q. How many Farz (compulsory) are there in Wuzu?
A. There are four Farz of Wuzu
1. To wash the face, from the point where the hair starts to grow till the bottom of the chin, and from one earlobe to the other.
2. To wash both arms including the elbows.
3. To wipe your wet hands over one quarter of your head.
4. To wash both feet including the ankles.
Q. How many Sunnats are there in Wuzu?
A. There are sixteen Sunnats in Wuzu,
1 To perform niyyat (intention)for Wuzu
2 To say Bismillah
3 To wash both hands up to the wrists three times.
4 To perform miswaak (clean teeth via a stick)
5 To gargle three times by using the right hand.
6 To suck up water into the nose by using the right hand.
7 To clean the nose by using the left hand.
8 To pass fingers through the beard.
9 To pass the fingers through each other and through the toes.
10 To wash each part three times.
11 To pass the wet hand over the full head.
12 To wipe the outside of the ears.
13 To perform Wuzu in order.
14 To wipe those hairs of the beard which are outside the borings of the face.
15 To wash the parts of Wuzu one after the other. In other words before on part becomes dry wash the other
16 To stay away from those things which are Makrooh (disliked)
Q. How many Mustahabs (preferable) are there in Wuzu?
A. There are sixty five Mustahabs in Wuzu which are stated in the book Bahar-e-Shariat.
Q. What is Makrooh?
A. Makrooh are those things, which make Wuzu acceptable but incomplete.
Q. How many things are Makrooh in Wuzu?
A. There are 21 things that are Makrooh in Wuzu,
1 To perform Wuzu with water left over from another Wuzu.
2 To sit on an impure place during Wuzu.
3 To run the water of Wuzu on the impure place.
4 To perform Wuzu inside a Masque (Jamaat Khana)
5 To run the drops of water from the parts of Wuzu in to the bucket to water used.
6 To put mucus from the nose and mouth into the bucket of water used.
7 To spit or pour water from the nose or mouth in the direction of the Qibla.
8 To talk about worldly things without reason.
9 To use more water than necessary.
10 To use so little water that the Sunnats of Wuzu cannot be performed.
11 To splash water on to the face.
12 To blow when pouring water on to the face.
13 To wash the face by using one hand.
14 To wipe the throat with the hands.
15 To gargle or suck water into the nose by using the left hand.
16 To clean the nose by using the right hand
17 To have a container etc. Only for yourself.
18 To wipe the head three times each time washing the hands
19 To dry the parts of Wuzu (but this can be done in cold weather)
20 To do Wuzu by using water which has been warmed by the sun.
21 To deliberately miss a Sunnat.
Q. What things break Wuzu?
A. 1 To excrete
2 To pass urine.
3 For anything to come out of the urinal or anal passage.
4 To pass wind.
5 For blood or puss to come out and flow from a part of the body.
6 To vomit (a mouthful), food, water, or mucus.
7 To sleep in such a way that the joints of the body become loose.
8 To fall unconscious
9 To become mentally disabled.
10 To faint.
11 To be drunk in anything in such a way that it is difficult to wake properly.
12 To laugh loudly during Namaz in such a way that the people around you listen when you are performing any Namaz which has Rukooh and Sajda.
13 For water to run form a hurting eye.

Ghusl (bathing)

Q. How can we clean our body from Hadath-e-Akbar?
A. By performing ghusl, the body can become pure from Hadath-e-Akbar.
Q. What is ghusl?
A. To bathe is called Ghusl.
The Islamic way is to perform the intention of ghusl first.
Then:
Wash both hands to the wrist three times.
Wash the private parts of the body.
Wash any najast Haqiqiya (e.g. Urine) from any part of the body.
do wuzu like you do for Namaz but do not wash your feet. If you are on a bench etc. Then wash your feet as well.
Then massage water on your body like you massage oil.
Then pass water three times on your right shoulder.
Then pass water three times on your left shoulder.
Then pass water on your head and whole of the body three times
wipe your hand on the whole body. After ghusl, and drying, quickly put back on your clothes.
Q. How many Farz are there in ghusl?
A. There are three Farz in ghusl
1. To perform gargle i.e. To clean the mouth out thoroughly.
2. To wash the inside of the nose thoroughly.
3. To wash the whole body so that not a hair point is left dry.
Q. How many Sunnats are there in ghusl?
A. The Sunnats are ghusl are as follows;
1 To perform the intention of ghusl.
2 To wash both hands up to the wrists three times.
3 To wash the private parts of the body.
4 To wash those places on which there is Najasat (impurity).
5 To perform wuzu like Namaz.
6 To massage water up the body like oil.
7 To pour the water on the right shoulder then the left and then the head and after that pour water all over the body three times.
8 To pass the hands over the whole body and message the body.
9 Not to face the Qibla when performing ghusl. If performing ghusl you wear clothes then it is acceptable.
10 To perform ghusl in a place where you cannot be seen.
11 When performing ghusl you should not talk.
12 Not to pray anything.
13 It is Sunnat for the women to sit and do ghusl.
14 To get dressed quickly after ghusl.

 

Read Holy Quran: QuranSharif.info

Read islamic Articles: QuranSunnat.com

 
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Basics of Islam

Basics of Islam PART 1

Written By Mufti Jalal-Ud-Din Ahmad Amjadi
Translated by Haji Saleem Ghisa Rizvi
Prepared by
Molvi Kaleem Raza

Q) Who are you?
A) I am a Muslim

Q) Who do you call a Muslim?
A) Those who believe in one Allah and believes that Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam is the messenger of Allah and believes that the Holy Quran is the book of Allah
Q) What is the name of your religion?
A) Islam
Q) What is the message of Islam (Kalima)?
A) La ilaha illallaho Muhammadur Rasoolallah’ This is Called the first Kalima (Kalima Tayyab)
Q) What is the meaning of this Kalima?
A) There is no-one worthy of worship except Allah, Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam is the messenger of Allah
Q) Who is Allah?
A) Allah created humans, the sun, moon and every singe creation.
Q) What do you call someone who does not believe in Allah?
A) Whoever does not believe in Allah is an infidel (Kafir)
Q) What do you call someone who associates someone equal to or partner with Allah?
A) We call them Mushrik and Kafir (polytheist) and infidel)
Q) What is wrong in being a Kafir or Mushrik?
A) Allah will always be unhappy with a Kafir or Mushrik and after death they will remain in the fire or hell forever.
Q) Will Kafirs or Mushriks never go to paradise?
A) No, never, they will remain in hell for eternity.
Q) Who is Muhammad Sallallhu Alaihe Wasallam?
A) He is the messenger and Prophet of Allah Ta’ala. He is the highest ranking Prophet of all prophets. He is the greatest Prophet. We are all his followers, we are from his Ummat and he is our Prophet
Q) Where was our Prophet born?
A) He was born on the 12 th of Rabbi-ul-Awwal (approx.20 th April 571 ad.)
Q) What is the name of the Holy Prophet’s father?
A) It is Hazrat Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him)
Q) What is the name of our Holy Prophet’s mother?
A) It is Hazrat Amina (may Allah be pleased with her)
Q) What is the names of our Holy Prophet ‘s grandparents?
A) Our Holy Prophet’s grandfather’s name was Abdul Muttallib and his grandmother’s name (Maternal) was Wahub.
Q) How many years did our Holy Prophet stay alive?
A) After our Holy Prophet passes away, by the power of Allah he is still alive in his holy shrine. His presence in the world was 63 and 10 years In Madinah.
Q) On what date did our Holy Prophet pass away?
A) Our Holy Prophet Passed away from in front of the human eyes on the 12 th of Rabbi-ul Awwal (Approx. June 12 th 632ad…)
Q) Where is our Holy Prophet’s Holy Shrine?
A) It is in Madina Sharif , Which is approximately 300 km away from Makkah Sharif.
Q) How is it known that Muhammad Sallallhu Alaihe Wasallam is the Prophet of Allah Ta’ala?
A) It is proven by the fact that, our Holy Prophet called people towards Islam, he performed many miracles and he gave such knowledge of the unseen (llm-e-ghaib) which can only be given by none other than a Prophet of Allah.
Q) What do you call a person who does not believe in Muhammad Sallallhu Alaihe Wasallam as a Prophet?
A) he/she is a Kafir (Infidel)
Q) What if someone believes in Allah Ta’ala but does not believe in the Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallhu Alaihe Wasallam?
A) The person is also a Kafir.
Q) What is the reason for believing in the Holy Prophet?
A) The reason for believing in him is that he is a true Prophet sent by Allah Ta’ala believe in this, believe in every word of our Holy Prophet, love him and never disrespect or speak or think badly about him.
Q) What is the Holy Quran?
A) The Holy Quran is the book of Allah.
Q) How do we know that the Holy Quran is Allah’s book?
A) There has never been a book that someone could create which was anything like the Holy Quran this then proves that the Holy Quran is the book of Allah. If the Holy Quran had been written and created by someone other than Allah then it would have been easy to create something similar, which of course has not been possible.
Q) Who was the Holy Quran revealed to?
A) It was revealed to our Holy Prophet, MUHAMMAD Sallallaho Alaihe ‘Wasallam.
Q) Was the Holy Quran Revealed all at once, or in parts?
A) It was revealed bit by bit according to the need of the people.
Q) Over how long a period was the Holy Quran Revealed?
A) It was Revealed over 23 years.
Q) How was the Holy Quran Revealed?
A) Hazrat Jibraeel Alaiyhissallaam revealed, chapter and versed to our Holy Prophet, by the grace of almighty Allah. Our Holy Prophet memorized these passages and repeated them to the people. These people then memorized these passages and wrote then down.
Q) What is preached in the Holy Quran?
A) Everything is in the Holy Quran, i.e. regarding everything in all walks of life and the hereafter.
Q) Why was the Holy Quran Revealed?
A) To show people the right way in life. So people can recognise Allah almighty and his Holy Prophet and so that they can live life in a pure way.
Q) Who is Hazrat Jibraeel Alaiyhissalaam?
A) He is an angel who brought messages (wahi) from Allah Almighty to the Prophets.
Q) What are Angels?
A) They are created from light (Noor), by Almighty Allah; they are neither male or female. They don’t eat or drink. They worship Allah constantly. (Non Stop)
Q) Why are human created?
A) They are created to worship Almighty Allah.
Q) How do Muslims worship Allah?
A) They worship Allah in the following ways:
1) They pray Namaz (Salat)
2) They fast during the month of Ramadan.
3) Rich Muslim offer Zakat (charity) Muslim.
4) They perform pilgrimage (hajj)
Q) What is the best from of worshop?
A) Namaz (Salat) is the best form of worship.
Q) What is Namaz (Salat)?
A) Namaz (Salat) is a form of worshiping Allah Almighty which is performed a certain way. A person praying Namaz, stands facing Qibla (Holy Ka’aba) they recite verses from the Holy Quran and bow down before Allah. They praise Allah, and they pray Durood (blessings) for our Holy Prophet.
Q) How many times a day do we pray Namaz?
A) Namaz is prayed five times a day.
Q) What are the names for these five Namaz?
A) Fajr, Zohr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha.
Q) When is the Fajr Namaz preyed?
A) From the break of dawn until the beginning of sunrise
Q) When Zohr Namaz prayed?
A) Zohr Namaz is prayed from after midday until the beginning time of Asr Namaz.
Q) When is Asr Namaz prayed?
A) Asr Namaz is prayed from late-afternoon until sunset.
Q) When is Maghrib Namaz prayed?
A) Maghrib Namaz is prayed from sunset, upto a maximum of One and Quarter hours.
Q) When is Isha Namaz prayed?
A) Isha Namaz is prayed after Maghrib time has lapsed upto the beginning of Fajr time.
Q) What is the process called when one washes their hands, face, feet and pass water over their hair?
A) This process is called WUZU (Ablution)
Q) How is Wuzu performed?
A) Wuzu is performed in the following way:
I) Pray Bismillah then perform Miswak (a five inch wooden stick) by rubbing over your teeth if this is not available then use your index finger.
ii) Wash both hands up to your wrists three times (first right then left)
iii) Then perform a gargle by washing your mouth out three times (using your right hand).
iv) Then pass water into your nose with your left hand little finger in right nostril and left hand thumb in left nostril, this is done three times.
v) Wash your face thoroughly by gathering water in both your palms (form a cup) and start at top of your forehead where hair has the bottom of our chin, this is also done three times.
vi) Wash your right arm up to and including your elbow, and ensure water passes through your fingers and pass your arms and not the other way round. Perform three times and do same to your left arm three times.
vii) Perform masah (wiping) by wetting your fingers on both hands and then using three fingers (small, next and middle) on the both hands rub over your hair from forehead to back of neck. Use your index finger in each hand to clean your ears (right finger to clean right ear and left finger to clean the left ear). Use your thumbs to clean back of your ears. Clean each side of your neck by passing the back of your hand over it. This Masah is only done ONCE.
ix) Wash you feet upto and including the ankles making sure that water passes every gap between your toes. Perform this three times with right and then left.
x) Look up to the sky and pray ASHHADUAN LA’ILA HA ILLALLAHO MUHAMMAD-DUR’RASOOLULLAH and the lnna Anzalna surat .
Q) What is the purpose of Wuzu?
A) The purpose of Wuzu is to ensure that you clean all parts mentioned, and it is important that you get plenty of water over the parts that you are washing.
Q) If a part of your body, that you are washing whilst doing Wuzu gets wet, but water does not drip from that, then does that Wuzu count?
A) No, if this happens Wuzu will not count. As well as wetting certain parts of your body (which have been mentioned) water must drip from those parts.
Q) At the time of Namaz, a man stands and calls people to prayer, what is this called?
A) This called the Azaan.
Q) What is the method of praying the Azaan?
A) Azaan is performed in the following manner after performing ablution (Wuzu). The person praying Azaan stands in a high place facing the Qibla putting both index fingers in the ears (right ear, left index finger in left ear) and praying in a loud and clear voice.
Q) What is the dua prayed after hearing the Azaan?
A) ALLAHUMMA RABBA HAA’ZIHID DA’WATT’IT TAA’MATEH WA SALAATIL QAA’IMAH TIH AATE SAYYEDINA MUHAMMADNIL WASEELATA WALFAZEELATH WADARAJATR RAFEEATAH WAB’AS HO MAKAAMU M M AHMOODA’NILAZIH WA’ATTAHO WARZUKNA SHAFA’ATAHO YAWMAL QIYAAMAT’E INNAKA LATUKHLIFUL MI’AAD.
Click here for Dua of Azan for Audio and Arabic text
Q) A short while after Azaan, people pray something else in loud
voice, what is this called?
A) This is called Tasweeb and Salat.
Q) What are the words prayed for Tasweeb and Salat?
A) There are no specific words which have been Islamic law. One can pray any words which are appropriate. These days the Durood Sharif is used quite commonly.
Q) Before the Namaz commences, one man stands in the first row and prays something in loud voice. What is this called?
A) The words of Takbeer are exactly the same as the words used in Azaan.
There is only on slight difference and that is after HAAYAA ALAL FALAAH the words QUDQAAMATIS SALAAT are prayed twice in addition.
Q) When listening to the Takbeer should a person be sat down or stood up?
A) Takbeer should be listened to whi8lst sitting down, but when the person praying HAYYA ALAL FALAAH, then everyone should stand.
Q) What do you call a parson who prays the Azaan?
A) He is called a Mu’azzin.
Q) What do you call a person who prays the Takbeer?
A) He is called the Mukabbir.
Q) What do you call someone who prays Namaz on their own?
A) They are called a Munfarid (alone)
Q) When everyone prays Namaz together what is this called?
A) When people who pray Namaz together this is called Jamaat.
Q) What do you call the person who leads the Namaz?
A) The person who leads the Namaz is called an Imam.
Q) What is the name given to those who pray behind the Imam?
A) They are called Muqtadee.
Q) What is the name given to the position when you stand up from Rukooh?
A) It is called Quwmah.
Q) What is the name given to the sitting position when you come out from sijdah?
A) The sitting position in between the Sijdahs is called jalsa and the sitting position when praying Attahiyat is called Qaida.
Q) Should Bismillah be prayed before Attahiyat?
A) No.
Q) Should the Muktadee pray Ta’awwuz and Tasmeeh when he is praying behind the Imam?
A) The Muktadeeh should only pray Sanah, when he is hehind the Imam and then remain silent. He should not pray Ta’awwuz or Tasmeeh; neither should he pray Surah Fatiha or any other Surat.
Q) Should the Muktadeeh pray ‘Sami Allaho liman hamidah’ when rising from Rukooh?
A) No, but he should pray Rabbana lakal hamd’ after rising from Rukooh.
Q) After Namaz, what do people pray whilst counting on their fingers?
A) They pray, Subhanallah 33 times, Allhamdolillah 33 times and Allaho Akbar 34 times. There is a lot of sawab (reward) for praying this.

 

Part 2:

Q. What is the religion of Islam?
A. Islam is that path upon which Allah can be recognized.

Q. How can a person find this path?
A. This path can be found by means of the messengers of Allah
Q. How many pillars of Islam are there?
A. There are five pillars of Islam.
Q. what are these?
A. they are as follows
1. To state “Kalima Shahadat” by the tongue and accept it by heart.
2. To perform Namaz
3. To give Zakat.
4. To fast in the month of Ramadan.
5. To perform hajj.
Q. What is the “Kalima shahadat” and what does it mean?
A. This is Kalima Shahadat:
“Ash hado al la ila ha illAllah o wahdaho la sharika lahoo wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan ab du hu wa Rasooluh”.
Meaning:” I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is his beloved servant and messenger.”
Q. If person prays the Kalima Shahadat by his tongue but does not believe it in his heart then is that person a Muslim?
A. A person like this is never a Muslim.
Q. What is ‘Iman’?
A. To believe all the things brought by our Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam from Allah is called Imaan.
Q. How many things should a Muslim believe in; which are compulsory?
A. There are seven things to believe in, these are mentioned in “Imaan Mufassal”
Amanto billahi wamala ikatihee wakutoobihi wa rusoolihi walyawmil akhiri wal qadri khayrihi washarrihi minAllah I Ta’ala walba’si ba’dal maut”

“I have believe in Allah, his Angels, his Books, his Messengers, on the day of judgment, and that goodness and non good things of destiny are all from Allah, and I also believe in being raised from the dead by Allah”.
Q. What is kufr?
A. To disbelieve in any of the things that are compulsory to believe in Islam.

Allah

Q. Regarding to Allah what should we believe?
A. Allah is one, pure, and clean from all defects. He is the only one worthy of worship. He has no beginning nor does he have an end. He has no partner.
The earth, sky, stars, sun, everything was created by him alone, and he is the master of all things. He has the ability to make a person rich or poor. He gives things life and death by his command. He is pure from and relations e.g. Father, mother, son, daughter, etc. He does face or body nothing is like Him, he is free from any position or place.
Q. Can we say Allah Miya?
A. No Allah miya should not be said.
Q. Who’s names are “Khaliq, Razzaq, Rahman”?
A. These names are all of Allah
Q. If people have names such as “Abdul Haq or Abdul Razzaq or Abdur Rahman or Abdul Qayyum can we call these people by names such as “Haq, Razzaq, Rahman, Qayyum ?
A. To do this is Haram (strictly forbidden)

The Angels of Allah

Q. What are angels?
A. Like mankind, angels are a. creation of Allah , but they are made of light. They are not of man or women. They do not eat or drink. They perform all the duties that Allah has given them.
Some angels write down a person’s good and bad dead in their graves; and some angels take Durood Sharif to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)
Q) What are the names of those angels who write down our good and bad deeds?
A. They are called “Kiraman and Katibeen”.
Q. What do we call them angels who ask questions to the dead in their graves?
A. They are called “Munkar and Nakeer”
Q. How many angels are there?
A. There are countless angels of Allah. The total amounts of angels are know by Allah and by revelation his Prophet (peace be upon him) but there are four popular angels.
Q. Can you name these four angels?
A. 1.”Hazrat Jibraeel” (Peace be on him) who passes the messages of Allah to his messengers.
2. “Hazrat Israfeel” (peace be on him) who is blow the horn on the day of judgment.
3. “Hazrat Mikaeel” (peace be on him)
who is controlling the rainfall and sending wealth.
4. “Hazrat Izraeel” (peace on him) who has a duty of taking out souls of living things.

THE BOOKS OF ALLAH

Q. How many books are there of Allah?
A. Allah has sent down a great deal of books the larger books were called Kitabs, and the smaller books were called Sahigas. However, there four very popular Kitabs.
Q. What are thes4e four Kitabs Called and upon whom were they revealed to?
A. 1. Tauret, revealed to Hazrat Musa (peace be upon him)
2. Zaboor, revealed to Hazrat Da’ud (peace be upon him)
3. Injeel, revealed to Hazrat Eisa (peace be upon him)
4. Quran, revealed to Hazrat Mohammad Mustafa Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam
Q. Are these books still available today?
A. All the books are available. However, apart form the Holy Quran the rest have been altered and tampered by the Jews and Christians and the originals cannot be obtained.
Q. Has the Holy Quran been tampered with?
A. No, definitely not. it is unaltered from the time of the Holy Prophet and will remain so, until the day of Qayamat.
Q. How can there be no change in the Holy Quran?
A. Because Allah has taken sole responsibility to protect it, no person can alter it.
Q. How many Sahifas have been revealed and to which messengers?
A. The total amount of Sahifas (booklets) are only known by Allah and by revealing, his Prophet. However some Sahifas were revealed to Hazrat Adam (peace be on him) some to Hazrat Shees(peace be on him) some to Hazrat Ibrahim (peace be on him) apart from these, there are still others too.

Rasool and Nabi (Messengers and Prophets)

Q. Who are Rasool and Nabi?
A. Rasool and Nabi are the beloved servants of Allah, and they are human. Allah has sent them down for the guidance of the people. They preach the command of Allah to His people. They show miracles and speak of things unseen (ghaib) they never lie, and are pure from all sins.
Q. Are angels Nabis too?
A. No. Nabis are human beings only.
Q. How many Nabis are there?
A. More or less than 124.000 or more or less 224.000. The correct number is known to Allah and by his showing our Holy Prophet (peace be upon him.)
Q. Who was the first Prophet?
A. Hazrat Adam (peace be upon him)
Q. Who was the last Prophet?
A. Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (peace be on him)
Q. Are there going to be any Nabis now?
A. There will be no Nabi now. This is because our holy Prophet (peace be upon him) is the seal of the prophets. If a person doubts this, then he is a Kafir
Q. Who is the highest ranked, of the Rasools?
A. The most highest ranked of all the Rasools and Nabis is our Prophet Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (peace be upon him). After Allah, he has the highest rank.
Q. Can we write (S.A.W) after the name of a Prophet?
A. The full Durood, peace be upon him should be written, to write (p.b.u.h.) (s.a.w.) Etc. is Haram.

Part 3:

Qayamat

Q. Which day do we call Qayamt?
A. Qayamat is the day when all man, animals, earth, skies, mountain, everything will be destroyed. Only Allah will remain.
Q. How will everything be destroyed?
A. Hazrat Israfeel (peace be on him) will blow the soor. From the sound of it everybody, everything will be destroyed, Even Hazrat Israfeel and his horn will be destroyed.
Q. What is a soor?
A Soor is a thing similar to that of a horn of an animal.
Q. When will Qayamat come?
A. The correct time for Qayamat is known by Allah and his showing, the Prophet (peace be upon him). All we know is that it will be upon the 10th of moharram, and that the day will be a Friday. However our Prophet (peace be upon him) has given us a great deal of sings for Qayamat. By seeing these signs the near time of Qayamat can be known.
Q. Can you mention a few signs of Qayamat?
A. There will be a great deal of sins done. People will openly do Haram acts, people will be cruel to there parents and be friendly with others, rich people will find it difficult to give Zakat, the knowledge of Islam will be studied for worldly luxuries, there will be a great increase in dance and music, bad people will be the leaders of the public, the once poorest people will be living in massive buildings and will have money, there will be massive earthquakes.

Taqdeer (Destiny)

Q. What is Taqdeer (Destiny)?
A. What ever happens in this world and what good or bad, people do. Allah has written this down from the very beginning. This is Taqdeer.
Q. Does this mean that whatever Allah has written down, is compulsory for us to do?
A. No! Allah has already written down what we are going to do. If bad deeds were written in a person’s destiny, this is because he/she will do sins in this world. If he/she was going to do good deeds then reward would be written down in his destiny.

Rising after being dead

Q. What do we mean by “rising after dead”?
A. After the day of Qayamat, when everything will be destroyed. When Allah wishes he will create Hazrat Israfeel and his horn. When the horn is blown the second time everything will be raised, and they will go to the field of Hashr. There will be an account for every person for their good and bad deeds and they will be rewarded according to this, i.e. Good people will go to Jannat (paradise), and bad people will go to Jahannum (hell).
Q. If every person believes in everything in Iman –Mufassal by his tongue and heart but does not perform Namaz, Roza, Zakat, or Hajj is he still counted as a Muslim?
A. He is a Muslim but such a person is a grave sinner, and against the command of Allah. Such a person is Fasiq and Fajir (wrongdoer)
Q. If a person prays Namaz, Fasts etc. And believes everything of Iman-Mufassal but is insulting and be rude to the Prophet (peace be upon him) is this person a Muslim?
A. No! Such a person is a Kafir (infidel) and murtad (apostate)
Q. If a person does not insult the Prophet but purposely believes that those who insult the Prophet are Muslim. Is such a Person regarded as a Muslim?
A. No! This person too is a Kafir and Murtad (renegade)

Chapter of action

Namaz

Q. What things are necessary before starting Namaz?
A. Before starting Namaz seven conditions need to be fulfilled.
Q. What are these seven conditions?
A. 1. The body has to be clean.
2. The clothes have to be clean.
3. The place of praying Namaz has to be clean.
4. Satr-e-awrat(covering the body)
5. It should be the time of praying Namaz
6. To face the Qibla.
7. To make the niyat (intention) for Namaz. These seven things are called “sharait-e-namaz”

The first necessary condition of Namaz

Q. What do we mean by keeping the body clean?
A. There should be no sign of ‘Najasat Haqiqiya’, or ‘Najasat Hukmi’
Q. How many types of impurities (Najasats) are there?
A. There are two types of impurities, one is ‘Najasat Haqiqiya’ and the other one is Najasat Hukmi.
Q. What is Najasat Haqiqiya?
A. This is an impurity which can be seen directly e.g. Urine, blood etc.
Q. What is Najasat Hukmi?
A. This is an impurity which cannot be seen directly, but is known because of the Islamic law, e.g. Those situations which makes it compulsory for a person to perform bathing or Wuzu.
There are two types of Najasat Hukmi,
1. Hadath-e-Asgar. (Small)
2. Hadath-e-Akbar. (large)
Q. How does the body become clean from hadath-e-Asgar?
A. When person performs Wuzu.

Wuzu

Q. What is Wuzu?
A. To wash both hands up till the wrists
To wash the mouth.
To wash the inside of the nose.
To wash the whole face.
To wash both arms including the elbows
To wipe the head with wet hands (masah).
To wash both feet up to the ankles. This is called Wuzu
Q. Are all the these things necessary in Wuzu?
A. No. Only those things are necessary which we call Farz (compulsory). If a Farz is missed then Wuzu will not be made some things are Sunnat. If the Sunnat is missed then Wuzu is still performed. But if you do these Sunnats then the reward will be given and the reward would be greater.
Q. How many Farz (compulsory) are there in Wuzu?
A. There are four Farz of Wuzu
1. To wash the face, from the point where the hair starts to grow till the bottom of the chin, and from one earlobe to the other.
2. To wash both arms including the elbows.
3. To wipe your wet hands over one quarter of your head.
4. To wash both feet including the ankles.
Q. How many Sunnats are there in Wuzu?
A. There are sixteen Sunnats in Wuzu,
1 To perform niyyat (intention)for Wuzu
2 To say Bismillah
3 To wash both hands up to the wrists three times.
4 To perform miswaak (clean teeth via a stick)
5 To gargle three times by using the right hand.
6 To suck up water into the nose by using the right hand.
7 To clean the nose by using the left hand.
8 To pass fingers through the beard.
9 To pass the fingers through each other and through the toes.
10 To wash each part three times.
11 To pass the wet hand over the full head.
12 To wipe the outside of the ears.
13 To perform Wuzu in order.
14 To wipe those hairs of the beard which are outside the borings of the face.
15 To wash the parts of Wuzu one after the other. In other words before on part becomes dry wash the other
16 To stay away from those things which are Makrooh (disliked)
Q. How many Mustahabs (preferable) are there in Wuzu?
A. There are sixty five Mustahabs in Wuzu which are stated in the book Bahar-e-Shariat.
Q. What is Makrooh?
A. Makrooh are those things, which make Wuzu acceptable but incomplete.
Q. How many things are Makrooh in Wuzu?
A. There are 21 things that are Makrooh in Wuzu,
1 To perform Wuzu with water left over from another Wuzu.
2 To sit on an impure place during Wuzu.
3 To run the water of Wuzu on the impure place.
4 To perform Wuzu inside a Masque (Jamaat Khana)
5 To run the drops of water from the parts of Wuzu in to the bucket to water used.
6 To put mucus from the nose and mouth into the bucket of water used.
7 To spit or pour water from the nose or mouth in the direction of the Qibla.
8 To talk about worldly things without reason.
9 To use more water than necessary.
10 To use so little water that the Sunnats of Wuzu cannot be performed.
11 To splash water on to the face.
12 To blow when pouring water on to the face.
13 To wash the face by using one hand.
14 To wipe the throat with the hands.
15 To gargle or suck water into the nose by using the left hand.
16 To clean the nose by using the right hand
17 To have a container etc. Only for yourself.
18 To wipe the head three times each time washing the hands
19 To dry the parts of Wuzu (but this can be done in cold weather)
20 To do Wuzu by using water which has been warmed by the sun.
21 To deliberately miss a Sunnat.
Q. What things break Wuzu?
A. 1 To excrete
2 To pass urine.
3 For anything to come out of the urinal or anal passage.
4 To pass wind.
5 For blood or puss to come out and flow from a part of the body.
6 To vomit (a mouthful), food, water, or mucus.
7 To sleep in such a way that the joints of the body become loose.
8 To fall unconscious
9 To become mentally disabled.
10 To faint.
11 To be drunk in anything in such a way that it is difficult to wake properly.
12 To laugh loudly during Namaz in such a way that the people around you listen when you are performing any Namaz which has Rukooh and Sajda.
13 For water to run form a hurting eye.

Ghusl (bathing)

Q. How can we clean our body from Hadath-e-Akbar?
A. By performing ghusl, the body can become pure from Hadath-e-Akbar.
Q. What is ghusl?
A. To bathe is called Ghusl.
The Islamic way is to perform the intention of ghusl first.
Then:
Wash both hands to the wrist three times.
Wash the private parts of the body.
Wash any najast Haqiqiya (e.g. Urine) from any part of the body.
do wuzu like you do for Namaz but do not wash your feet. If you are on a bench etc. Then wash your feet as well.
Then massage water on your body like you massage oil.
Then pass water three times on your right shoulder.
Then pass water three times on your left shoulder.
Then pass water on your head and whole of the body three times
wipe your hand on the whole body. After ghusl, and drying, quickly put back on your clothes.
Q. How many Farz are there in ghusl?
A. There are three Farz in ghusl
1. To perform gargle i.e. To clean the mouth out thoroughly.
2. To wash the inside of the nose thoroughly.
3. To wash the whole body so that not a hair point is left dry.
Q. How many Sunnats are there in ghusl?
A. The Sunnats are ghusl are as follows;
1 To perform the intention of ghusl.
2 To wash both hands up to the wrists three times.
3 To wash the private parts of the body.
4 To wash those places on which there is Najasat (impurity).
5 To perform wuzu like Namaz.
6 To massage water up the body like oil.
7 To pour the water on the right shoulder then the left and then the head and after that pour water all over the body three times.
8 To pass the hands over the whole body and message the body.
9 Not to face the Qibla when performing ghusl. If performing ghusl you wear clothes then it is acceptable.
10 To perform ghusl in a place where you cannot be seen.
11 When performing ghusl you should not talk.
12 Not to pray anything.
13 It is Sunnat for the women to sit and do ghusl.
14 To get dressed quickly after ghusl.

 
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Posted by on September 19, 2008 in Uncategorized

 

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Islamic legal rules of fasting


 

When the disciples of Jesus asked him how to cast the evil spirits away, he is reported to have said, “But this kind never comes out except by prayer and fasting.”

By: Dr. Muzammil Siddiqi
IslamiCity* –

What is Sawm (Fasting)?

Purpose of Fasting

Fasting Is Obligatory

Rules of Fasting

  1.  Who must fast?
  2.  Fasting According to the Sunnah
  3.  Things That Invalidate the Fast 
  4. Things That Do Not Invalidate Fasting 
  5. Requirements for Fasting to Be Valid

What is Sawm (Fasting)? 

The Arabic word for fasting is called “sawm” in the Quran. The word sawm literally means “to abstain”. Chapter Maryam of the Quran says that Mary the mother of Jesus said “I have vowed a “sawm” (fast) for the sake of the Merciful, so today I shall not speak to anyone.” [Quran 19:26].  According to Shariyah, the word sawm means to abstain from all those things that are forbidden during fasting from the break of dawn to the sunset, and to do this with the intention of fasting.

Purpose of Fasting

In chapter 2 verse 183 the Quran says, “O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those who were before you, in order that you may learn taqwa (piety)”.

Taqwa is a very important spiritual and ethical term of the Quran. It is the sum total of all Islamic spirituality and ethics. It is a quality in a believer’s life that keeps him or her aware of God all the time. A person who has taqwa loves to do good and avoid evil for the sake of God. Taqwa is piety, righteousness and consciousness of God. Taqwa requires patience and perseverance. Fasting teaches patience, and with patience one can rise to the high position of taqwa.

The Prophet said that fasting is a shield. It protects a person from sin and lustful desires. When the disciples of Jesus asked him how to cast the evil spirits away, he is reported to have said, “But this kind never comes out except by prayer and fasting.” (Matthew 17:21).

According to Imam Al Ghazali, fasting produces a semblance of divine quality of samadiyyah (freedom from want) in a human being. Imam Ibn Al Qayyim, viewed fasting as a means of releasing the human spirit from the clutches of desire, thus allowing moderation to prevail in the carnal self. Imam Shah Waliullah Dahlawi (d. 1762 C.E.) viewed fasting as a means of weakening the bestial and reinforcing the angelic elements in human beings. Maulana Mawdudi (d. 1979 C.E.) emphasized that fasting for a full month every year trains a person individually, and the Muslim community as a whole, in piety and self restraint.

Fasting Is Obligatory

In the second year of Hijrah, Muslims were commanded to fast in the month of Ramadan every year as mentioned in the verse above [Al-Baqarah 2:183]. The Quran further says “The month of Ramadan is that in which was revealed the Quran, wherein is guidance for humankind and the clear signs of guidance and distinction. Thus whosoever among you witness the month must fast…” [Al-Baqarah 2:184].

Prophet Muhammad explained this further in a number of his statements reported in the books of Hadith. It is reported by Imam Al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim on the authority of Ibn Umar that the Messenger of God said, “Islam is built upon five pillars: testifying that there is no god except God and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God, performing Prayer, paying the zakah, making the pilgrimage to the Sacred House (Hajj), and fasting during the month of Ramadan.” 

The entire Muslim world is unanimous in the principal of fasting in the month of Ramadan and considers it obligatory upon every person who is physicaly capable (mukallaf).

Rules of Fasting

A) Who must fast?

Muslims all over the world wait eagerly for Ramadan, as it is a time of increased inner peace and well-being.

Fasting in the month of Ramadan is obligatory upon every adult Muslim, male or female, who has reached puberty, is sane and who is not sick or traveling.

Sickness could be a temporary sickness from which a person expects to be cured soon. Such a person should not fast during the days of his or her sickness, but he or she must fast later after Ramadan to complete the missed days. Those who are sick with incurable illness and expect no better health are also allowed not to fast but they must pay the fidyah, which is giving a day’s meals for each fast missed to a needy person. Instead of food for one day one can also give equivalent amount of money to a needy person. Women in their menses and post-natal bleeding are not allowed to fast, but they must make up the fast later after Ramadan. If pregnant women and mothers who are nursing babies can also postpone their fasting to a later time when they are able to do so.

A travel according to the Shariah is any journey that takes you away from your city of residence, a minimum of 48 miles or 80 kilometers. The journey must be for a good cause. One must avoid frivolous travel during Ramadan which causes a person to miss fasting. If possible one should try to change their travel plans during Ramadan to be able to fast and should not travel unless it is necessary. The traveler who misses the fasts of Ramadan must make up those missed days later as soon as possible after Ramadan.

B) Fasting According to the Sunnah

1 – Take sahur (pre-dawn meal). It is Sunnah and there is a great reward and blessing in taking sahur. The best time for sahur is the last half hour before dawn or the time for Fajr prayer.

2 – Take iftar (break-fast) immediately after sunset. Shariah considers sunset when the disk of the sun goes below the horizon and disappears completely.

3 – During the fast, abstain from all false talks and deeds. Do not quarrel, have disputes, indulge in arguments, use bad words, or do anything that is forbidden. You should try to discipline yourself morally and ethically, besides gaining physical training and discipline. You should also not make a show of your fasting by talking too much about it, or by showing dry lips and a hungry stomach, or by showing a bad temper. The fasting person must be a pleasant person with good spirits and good cheer.

4 – During the fast, do acts of charity and goodness to others and increase your worship and reading of the Quran. Every one should try to read the whole Quran at least once during the month of Ramadan.

C) Things That Invalidate the Fast 

You must avoid doing anything that may render your fast invalid. Things that invalidate the fast and require qadaa’ (making up for these days) are the following:

1 – Eating, drinking or smoking deliberately, including taking any non-nourishing items by mouth or nose.

2 – Deliberately causing yourself to vomit.

3 – The beginning of menstrual or post-childbirth bleeding even in the last moment before sunset.

4 – Sexual intercourse or other sexual contact (or masturbation) that results in ejaculation (in men) or vaginal secretions (orgasm) in women. 

5 – Eating, drinking, smoking or having sexual intercourse after Fajr (dawn) on the mistaken assumption that it is not Fajr time yet. Similarly, engaging in these acts before Maghrib (sunset) on the mistaken assumption that it is already Maghrib time.

Sexual intercourse during fasting is forbidden. Those who engage in it must make both qadaa’ (make up the fasts) and kaffarah (expiation by fasting for 60 days after Ramadan or by feeding 60 poor people for each day of fast broken in this way). According to Imam Abu Hanifah, eating and/or drinking deliberately during fast also entail the same qadaa’ and kaffarah.

D) Things That Do Not Invalidate Fasting 

Using a miswak to clean your teeth does not invalidate fasting

During fast, the following things are permissible:

1 – Taking a bath or shower. If water is swallowed involuntarily it will not invalidate the fast. According to most of the jurists, swimming is also allowed in fasting, but one should avoid diving, because that will cause the water to go from the mouth or nose into the stomach. 

2 – Using perfumes, wearing contact lenses or using eye drops.

3 – Taking injections or having a blood test.

4 – Using miswak (tooth-stick) or toothbrush (even with tooth paste) and rinsing the mouth or nostrils with water, provided it is not overdone (so as to avoid swallowing water).

5 – Eating, drinking or smoking unintentionally, i.e., forgetting that one was fasting. But one must stop as soon as one remembers and should continue one’s fast.

6 – Sleeping during the daytime and having a wet-dream does not break one’s fast. Also, if one has intercourse during the night and was not able to make ghusl (bathe) before dawn, he or she can begin fast and make ghusl later. Women whose menstruation stops during the night may begin fasting even if they have not made ghusl yet. In all these cases, bathing (ghusl) is necessary but fast is valid even without bathing.

7 – Kissing between husband and wife is allowed in fasting, but one should try to avoid it so that one may not do anything further that is forbidden during the fast.

E) Requirements for Fasting to Be Valid

There are basically two main components of fasting:

1 – The intention (niyyah) for fasting. One should make a sincere intention to fast for the sake of God every day before dawn. The intention need not be in words, but must be with the sincerity of the heart and mind. Some jurists are of the opinion that the intention can be made once only for the whole month and does not have to be repeated every day. It is, however, better to make intention every day to take full benefit of fasting.

2 – Abstaining from dawn to dusk from everything that invalidates fasting as mentioned above.

Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi is the imam and director of the Islamic Society of Orange County, California, USA and former president of the Islamic Society of North America.

 
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Posted by on December 25, 2007 in Articles

 

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Islam Beyond the Five Pillars


 

Islam is a God-centred Faith which never permits anything to be detached from its divine source ..

By: Charles Le Gai Eaton
IslamiCity* –

Those who enquire about the basics of Islam are usually told about the “Five Pillars” of the religion. These relate to faith and to practice, but at a deeper level it might be said that there are two great pillars which support the whole edifice. These are Peace and Justice. They are clearly connected since there can be no enduring peace without justice. The very word Islam comes from the same verbal root as salam meaning “peace” and, since the religion is based upon total submission to the will of God, Muslims believe that real peace is out of reach unless it is based upon this submission within the universal order. They believe equally that there can be no real justice except as an aspect of submission to the source of all that is just and well ordered. Although God in Himself is beyond comprehension or analysis, the Qur’an gives us hints as to His true nature through what are sometimes called “the 99 names” and one of these is al-Adl, “the Just”. Another of these names is al-Muqsio, “the Dispenser of Justice” or “He who gives to each thing its due”. 

The Quran praises those who always act “in the light of truth” and tells us: “Perfected are the words of your Lord in truth and justice”. It tells us also: “Behold, God enjoins justice and good actions and generosity to our fellows…”, and it commands us never to let hatred lead us into deviating from justice: “Be just! That is closest to God consciousness”. This, of course, applies to all believers who must fear divine justice if subjective factors or personal emotions lead them to deviate from the path of justice which is also the path of Islam, but it weighs heavily upon those who are required to adjudicate in disputes or to give judgement in criminal cases. There were cases in the early history of the religion when men whom the Ruler intended to appoint as judges fled from Court rather than assume this terrifying responsibility and we read of one who did accept the burden that his whole body trembled when he was called upon to give judgement, believing that a single mistake might carry with it the threat of damnation. The divine Judge stands over the human judge, observing all that he does, and human justice, even at its best, can never be more than a poor imitation of divine Justice. The Prophet Muhammad himself when he was called upon to adjudicate in civil actions warned the litigants that one of them might be more eloquent in putting his case than the other and thereby achieve an unjust settlement. “In such a case,” said Muhammad, “I will have given him a portion of hellfire”. This is clearly a grave matter indicating that those who seek justice must themselves practise it without deviation even to their own hurt. Under all and any circumstances a victory which is contrary to justice is a poisoned chalice. 

Of special significance too is the relationship between justice and wisdom in the Arabic language. The words Aukm, “judgement”, and Aikmah, “wisdom” come from the same root, and al-Aakim (the “All-Wise” is another of the names of God in the Quran. 

In the Christian tradition St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that, among all human pursuits, “the pursuit of wisdom is more perfect, more noble, more full of joy” than any other human enterprise. The Muslim might amend this slightly by emphasising that one cannot “pursue” wisdom as one might a rare butterfly since it is a divine quality and out of reach of the human seeker as such. It is for us to lay ourselves open to this gracious gift by making ourselves fit and ready to receive it. 

It is commonly said that Justice is or should be “blind”, in other words rigidly objective, but a Judge is required to possess the quality of insight in the most profound sense and can deserve no higher praise than to be described as “wise”, participating, as it were, in “the wisdom of Solomon”. Wisdom is as much a quality of character as an attribute of the mind. It has nothing to do with erudition which, however extensive, is necessarily limited in scope. A learned man can still be a fool when he steps outside the area of his expertise. The wise man is protected by his insight from folly – although not always from minor errors in the worldly context – because he possesses an inner yardstick by which to assess the situations he encounters. For the Muslim this yardstick is the Quran together with the example of the Prophet and their reflection in the human heart. There is no higher aim for the Muslim than the cultivation of what is described as a “sound heart”. From the sound heart comes sound judgement. The same is true of sound governance and, in Islam, this implies “ruling between” in accordance with wisdom rather than “ruling over”. 

The Quran always emphasises that Muhammad, though endowed with the fullness of wisdom, was only “flesh and blood”, capable like other men of error except when inspired from above, but it was his mission not only to convey with meticulous accuracy the revelation which descended upon him but also to offer the supreme example of what it meant to follow in his personal and his public life the full implications of the revelation no less meticulously. When he was dying and came for the last time to the mosque in Medina he said to the assembled people: “If there is anyone among you whom I have caused to be flogged unjustly, here is my back. Strike in your turn. If I have damaged the reputation of any among you, let him do the same to mine. To any I may have injured, here is my purse… It is better to blush in this world than in the hereafter”. A man claimed a small debt and was promptly paid. 

Why is justice so important in Islam? The core article of faith is the oneness of God, reflected in the unity of His creation in its totality. This unity is reflected in harmony and balance. Injustice destroys harmony and upsets balance thereby provoking disorder. The Muslim is commanded to give primacy to prayer throughout his life and, in all that he does, to remember God. It is true that people can maintain prayer and remembrance under all conditions, even in the midst of chaos, but the fact remains that spiritual life prospers and flourishes when it has a stable base, a firm platform from which the ascent to the knowledge of God and the love of God can, as it were, take off. A disordered society compounded of danger and distractions, unjust and troubled, provides no such security. The man who has to watch his back all the time is diverted from the remembrance of God as is the one who has suffered injustice and must struggle to eliminate feelings of anger and resentment. Moreover injustice fractures the brotherhood and sisterhood of the believers which is an essential element in an Islamic society. Above and beyond this is the simple fact that He who is called “the Just” commands justice both in society and in every aspect of human relations. Since, in Islam, all things are inter-connected – this is an aspect of unity – it might even be said that every act of injustice jars on the cosmos as a whole like a discordant note in a piece of music. 

Islam is a very realistic religion and the Quran itself recognises the reality of human weakness. Those who are injured are permitted to take retaliation but they are reminded at every turn that it is better to forgive and to seek reconciliation. Muslims are commanded to return good for evil, thus breaking the vicious circle of animosity; “to do good to those who have injured us” in the words of one of the classical commentators on the Quran, but this requires human qualities which are by no means universal although they were characteristic of Muhammad. In his dealings with the pagans who tried by every means to destroy him and his community he exemplified the rule of forgiveness and reconciliation, forgiving even the most vicious of his enemies when he finally re-entered Mecca in triumph, providing them with gifts so that their hard hearts might be softened and peace prevail after the years of conflict. Justice might have required their punishment, but there is no contradiction here since there is more than one way to achieve balance which, after all, is the ultimate objective of justice. Islam describes itself as “the middle way”, a religion of moderation in everything except the love and worship of God. Muhammad condemned extremism with the greatest severity and today’s Muslims have a greater need to be reminded of this than ever before as they do of his saying that “anger burns up good deeds just as fire burns up dry wood”. 

Extremism and anger are both of them ugly in their manifestations. In one of his inspired sayings (these are quite separate from the revealed text of the Quran) the Prophet said: “God is beautiful; He loves beauty”. It is significant that the Arabic word Aasan means both “good” and “beautiful”. The connection is clear since a good action or, for that matter, a good character has a quality of beauty which, in its turn, is related to the idea of harmony, just proportion and therefore of justice as such. It is worth noting that the English word “fair” means both just and beautiful. The Arabic verb adala, from the same root as adl (Justice), is usually translated as “to proportion”, “to create in symmetry” or “to be equitable”. Here again we have the idea of harmony which is dependent upon justice. 

Muslim thinkers have always been interested in the science of numbers and their significance, and each letter of the Arabic alphabet has a particular number attached to it. Words derived from the root ÔDL, including adl, occur 28 times in the Quran, and, as it happens, there are 28 letters in the Arabic alphabet. These are related to the 28 “mansions of the moon” which determine the Muslim calendar. This may seem somewhat esoteric but, in the Islamic perspective, there are no chance coincidences and, for Muslims, it is further proof of the universal harmony which is the pattern of creation and a sign that everything makes sense when it is closely examined. 

In the Quran, which is for all Muslims the directly revealed Word of God, He says: “We sent down the Book and the Balance so that mankind might uphold justice”. Here again the idea of balance occurs, linked directly with the revelation itself. The “scales of justice” are set up and our actions are to be weighed in perfect equity. Regarding the Last Judgement, we read in the Quran: “That day mankind will issue forth in scattered groups to be shown their deeds, and whoso does an atom’s weight of good will see it then and whoso does an atom’s weight of ill will see it then”. 

Actions which may appear to us completely trivial are cast into the balance, but good and ill are not alike in weight. The Quran tells us also that a good action, however small in itself, will be rewarded many times its own weight whereas the crimes or sins we may have committed will weigh no more and no less than what they are as such. It might even be said that the scales are themselves weighted in favour of the good and since God is the source of all that is good, all that is beautiful, all that is harmonious, this is in the nature of things. So far as human justice is concerned, the Prophet counselled all those who are obliged to sit in judgement over their fellows to “avert penalties by doubts” and this is clearly in accordance with the requirement of the British legal system that guilt must be proved “beyond reasonable doubt”. 

In the present age, at least in the West, the notion of justice and, in particular, of rights has taken on a colouring that is specifically modern. People are unwilling to accept that misfortunes are a part of life and not necessarily the fault of someone else or of the system. Earlier generations in the West were taught the virtue of resignation, as are Muslims still to this day. The cry “It’s so unfair!” is heard now on every side and the subjective conviction that one has suffered injustice or that one’s rights have been infringed is a source of bitterness and unhappiness. The Muslim, while he must uphold justice so far as he can, has no right to such self-indulgence or to suppose that he can be judge in his own case. To complain against destiny is, in effect, to enter a complaint against Him who holds all destinies in His hand and whose justice is beyond questioning. Here certain Quranic verses are particularly apposite: “And surely We will try you with something of fear and hunger and the loss of wealth and lives and crops. But give good news to the steadfast who say, when misfortune strikes them: ÔTruly we belong to God and truly to Him we return’. These are they upon whom are blessings from their Lord and mercy. Such are the rightly guided”. Life’s vicissitudes test our metal and reveal what we truly are in ourselves. The notion of “fair shares” can be dangerous since few people today are ready to accept that what life has given them is indeed fair. In the Islamic perspective ultimate justice puts everything in its appropriate place, whether high or low, and this is to be accepted since there is no place from which the ascent to the Creator – “seeking the Face of his Lord Most High” – may not be undertaken. This, rather than wealth or good fortune, is the priority of the Muslim who aims to fulfill the purpose of his life. 

Clearly the question of balance arises once again: on the one hand the obligation to strive for justice in this world, on the other to accept the injustices which are woven into our earthly life in a spirit of resignation. Circumstances dictate which of these alternatives is appropriate. The story is told of a merchant in Muslim Spain who, when told that his ship had sunk with all his goods aboard, looked down for a moment before exclaiming: “Praise be to God!”. Later a man came to tell him that the ship had been saved. Once again he looked down before exclaiming: “Praise be to God!”. He was asked why he had looked down. “I wanted,” he said, “to be sure that my heart was untroubled”. Equanimity is a basic virtue in Islam. Here, perhaps, there is a clue to the reconciliation of the alternatives with which we are so often faced – to take up arms against the injustice we have suffered or to accept it with resignation. The right choice can only be made if we detach ourselves from our emotions and from all subjectivism. 

This, of course, is an ideal not easily attainable but what matters is that the ideal stands clear of personal entanglements, is respected and is seen as the goal for which the good man should aim. History recounts that, during one of the battles in defence of the Muslim community in Medina, the Prophet’s son-in-law Ali, engaged in combat with one of the pagans, brought his enemy to his knees and was about to strike the killing blow when the man spat in his face. Ali sheathed his sword, knowing that to strike out of personal anger rather than as an act of dispassionate justice would be a sin. 

So justice is a basic principle of Islam since it has its roots in God Himself. To the secular jurist who sees it as an end in itself this may seem an alien concept but Islam is a God-centred Faith which never permits anything to be detached from its divine source, al-Aaqq, one of the “99 Names”, which means “The Truth” but can also be translated as “The Real”, ultimate Reality itself. There is therefore a principle which over-masters justice and this is RaAmah, Mercy. According to another of the Prophet’s inspired sayings: “When God completed the creation He wrote the following, which is with Him above His Throne – My Mercy takes precedence over my Wrath”. Justice is, in a sense, a manifestation of Wrath unless it is tempered by Mercy. All but one of the chapters of the Quran opens with the words: “In the name of God, the Merciful, the Dispenser of Mercy”, and, among Muslims, these same words initiate all human actions. It is said that the instrument of creation was the “breath of the Merciful” and therefore that existence itself is a mercy for which we have a duty to be grateful. Indeed, ingratitude and unbelief are almost synonymous in the Islamic perspective. 

Believers are warned again and again that if they hope for mercy from their Lord – as all must – then they have to show mercy to their fellows and to “every creature that has a living heart” including the beasts and the birds. “God gives a reward for gentleness which He will never give for harshness”, said the Prophet. It is clear that, for the Muslim, there is a powerful restraint upon justice if justice is understood merely as a weighing of relevant facts and that is why the human judge, fallible and himself in need of mercy, trembles when he gives judgement. 

In Islam mercy always has the last word.

Charles Le Gai Eaton (Hassan Abdul Hakeem) was born in Switzerland and educated at Charterhouse at King’s College, Cambridge. He worked for many years as a teacher and journalist in Jamaica and Egypt (where he embraced Islam in 1951) before joining the British Diplomatic Service. He is now a consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre in London.

 
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Posted by on December 25, 2007 in Articles

 

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Fasting according to the Quran

 


 

Fasting in Ramadan has not only been declared an act of worship and devotion and a means to nourish piety but has also been characterized as an act of gratefulness to God ..

By: Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi
IslamiCity* –

Believers! Fasting is enjoined upon you, as it was enjoined upon those before you, that you become God fearing. 1 Quran 2:183 –  Fasting is for a fixed number of days, and if one of you be sick, or if one of you be on a journey, you will fast the same number of other days later on. For those who are capable of fasting (but still do not fast) there is a redemption: feeding a needy man for each day missed. Whoever, voluntarily, does more good than is required, will find it is better for him; 2 and that you should fast is better for you, if you only know. 3 2:184 – During the month of Ramadan the Qur’an was sent down as a guidance to the people with clear signs of the true guidance, and as the Criterion (between right and wrong). So those of you who live to see that month should fast it, and whoever is sick or on a journey should fast the same number of other days instead. Allah wants ease and not hardship for you so that you may complete the number of days required, 4 magnify Allah for what He has guided you to, and give thanks to Him. 5 2:185 

  1. Like most other injunctions of Islam those relating to fasting were revealed gradually. In the beginning the Prophet had instructed the Muslims to fast three days in every month, though this was not obligatory. When the injunction in the present verse was later revealed in 2 A.H., a degree of relaxation was introduced: it was stipulated that those who did not fast despite their capacity to endure it were obliged to feed one poor person as an expiation for each day of obligatory fasting missed (see verse 184). Another injunction was revealed later (see verse 185) and here the relaxation in respect of able-bodied persons was revoked. However, for the sick, the traveler, the pregnant, the breast-feeding women and the aged who could not endure fasting, the relaxation was retained.

    (See Bukhari, `Tafsir al-Qur’an’, 25; Tirmidhi, ‘Sawm’, 21; Nasa’i, `Siyam’, 51, 62, 64; Ibn Majah, `Siyam’, 12; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, p. 104; vol. 4, pp. 347 and 418; vol. 5, p. 29 – Ed.)

  2. This act of extra merit could either be feeding more than the one person required or both fasting and feeding the poor.

  3. Here ends the early injunction with regard to fasting which was revealed in 2 A.H. prior to the Battle of Badr. The verses that follow were revealed about one year later and are linked with the preceding verses since they deal with the same subject.

  4. Whether a person should or should not fast while on a journey is left to individual discretion. We find that among the Companions who accompanied the Prophet on journeys some fasted whereas others did not; none objected to the conduct of another. The Prophet himself did not always fast when traveling. On one journey a person was so overwhelmed by hunger that he collapsed; the Prophet disapproved when he learned that the man had been fasting. During wars the Prophet used to prevent people from fasting so that they would not lack energy for the fight. It has been reported by ‘Umar that two military expeditions took place in the month of Ramadan. The first was the Battle of Badr and the second the conquest of Makka. On both occasions the Companions abstained from fasting, and, according to Ibn ‘Umar, on the occasion of the conquest of Makka the Prophet proclaimed that people should not fast since it was a day of fighting. In other Traditions the Prophet is reported to have said that people should not fast when they had drawn close. to the enemy, since abstention from fasting would lead to greater strength.

    (See Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, p. 329, and vol. 5, pp. 205 and 209; Darimi, `Sawm’, 41; Muslim, `Siyam’, 92; Nasa’i, `Siyam’, 47; Bukhari, `Maghazi’, 71; Muslim, `Siyam’, 102; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, pp. 21, 35, .46; Tirmidhi, ‘Sawm’, 18; Nasa’i, `Siyam’, 52; Bukhari, `Jihad’, 29; Muslim, `Siyam’, 98; Abu Da’ud, ‘Sawm’, 42; Muslim, `Siyam’, 102, 103, 105; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 2, 99; Tirmidhi, ‘Sawm’, 19 – Ed.)

    The duration of a journey for which it becomes permissible for a person to abstain from fasting is not absolutely clear from any statement of the Prophet.

    (cf. relevant Traditions Abu Da’ud, ‘Sawm’, 46, 47; Nasa’i, `Siyam’, 54, 55; Malik, Muwatta’, `Siyam’, 21, 27 – Ed.)

    In addition the practice of the Companions was not uniform. It would seem that any journey which is commonly regarded as such, and which is attended by the circumstances generally associated with traveling, should be deemed sufficient justification for not fasting.

    Jurists agree that one does not have to fast on the day of commencing a journey; one may eat either at the point of departure or after the actual journey has commenced. Either course is sanctioned by the practice of the Companions. Jurists, however, are not agreed as to whether or not the residents of a city under attack may abstain from fasting even though they are not actually traveling. Ibn Taymiyah favors the permissibility of abstention from fasting and supports his view with very forceful arguments.

  5. This indicates that fasting need not be confined, exclusively, to Ramadan. For those who fail to fast during that month owing to some legitimate reason God has kept the door of compensation open during other months of the year so that they need not be deprived of the opportunity to express their gratitude to Him for His great bounty in revealing the Qur’an.

    It should be noted here that fasting in Ramadan has not only been declared an act of worship and devotion and a means to nourish piety but has also been characterized as an act of gratefulness to God for His great bounty of true guidance in the form of the Qur’an. In fact, the best way of expressing gratitude for someone’s bounty or benevolence is to prepare oneself, to the best of one’s ability, to achieve the purpose for which that bounty has been bestowed. The Qur’an has been revealed so that we may know the way that leads to God’s good pleasure, follow that way ourselves and direct the world along it. Fasting is an excellent means by which to prepare ourselves for shouldering this task. Hence fasting during the month of the revelation of the Qur’an is more than an act of worship and more than an excellent course of moral training; it is also an appropriate form for the expression of our thankfulness to God for the bounty of the Qur’an.

Excerpted from “Towards Understanding the Qur’an”. Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari. English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an by Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi.

 
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Posted by on December 25, 2007 in Articles

 

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