Tag Archives: Sunnah

Namaz – How to Pray (Sunni Way)



The method of praying Namaz is as follows; With Wuzu, face towards the Qibla and stand so that there is a gap of four fingers between your feet. Take each hand to each ear and touch the lobes of the ears with the thumbs and leave the rest of the fingers in their normal state, don’t join them together or spread them apart. Face the palms of the hands towards the Qibia and your sight is to look at the sijdah. Then make a firm intention in your heart as to which Namaz you are praying and while saying ‘Allah-o-Akbar’ lower your hands and join them below the naval. The way to join the hands is to have the palm of the right hand on top of the back of the left hand wrist, keep the middle three fingers straight and circle the left wrist with the thumb and the little finger firmly grasping the hand. Then pray ‘Sana’ meaning Subhanakallah Humma Wa Bihamdika Wa Tabarakasmuka Wa Ta’ala Jadduka Wa Laa ila’ha Ghairuk" . Then pray Ta’awwuz meaning "A’oozu Billahi Minas Shaitaanir Rajeem" and then pray Tasmee’a meaning "Bismillah’ ir’rahman’ir’ Raheem" . Then pray the whole of the ‘Alhamdo’ Surat and say ‘Aameen’ quietly. After this, pray any Surat or three ayats or one ayat which is equivalent to three small ayats. Then whilst saying Allah-o-Akbar go into the Rukooh. Grasp the knees with the hands and spread your fingers over the knees. Keep your back straight and your head level with your back and make sure that you are not too far up or kneeling to low down and keep your sight on your feet and pray at least three times "Subhana Rabbi’al Azueem’ and then pray this whilst standing up ‘Sami Allahu Liman Hamidah’ and if you are praying Namaz alone then also say ‘Allahumma Rabbana Walakal Hamd’ and then while saying Allah-o-Akbar go into the Sijdah. The way to do this is to first put your knees on the ground, then put your hands at the side of the place where your are going to put your head and then place your head by first placing your nose on the ground and then your forehead and then press hard on your nose. Look towards your nose and keep your elbows up so that they don’t touch the ground and leave a gap between your armpits and make sure that there is a gap between your thighs and your stomach. Place all your toes so that their tips are pointing towards the Qibla and their bases are flat on the ground. Keep your hands flat and have your fingers pointing towards the Qibla. Then pray at least three times ‘Subhana Rabbi al A’ala’. Then lift your head up while saying Allah-o-Akbar with first lifting your forehead then your nose then your face and then your hands. Keep your right foot upright and lay your left foot flat and sit on it firmly. Place your hands on your knees with the finger tips pointing towards the Qibla and the palm of your hands flat near your knees and the base of the .fingertips laid flat at the end of your kneecaps. Then whilst saying ‘Allah-o-Akbar’ go back into the Sijdah and this is done in the same way as the first one. Then stand up by placing your hands on your knees and putting pressure on your knees and legs stand upright, don’t put your hands on the ground to assist you to stand up. Now pray only ‘Bismillah’ir’ Rahmaan’ir’ Raheem’ and then Alhamdo and another Surat and as before perform Rukooh and Sijdah, and when getting up from the second Sijdah leave your right foot upright and lay your left foot flat and sit upright. And pray •AttahiyyaatuLillahi Was Salawato Wattayyibatu Assalamu Alaika Ayyuhannabi ‘o ‘Warahmatullahi Wabarka’tuhu Assalamu Alaina Wa’ala’Ibadillahis Sa’liheen, Ash’had’u’un La ilahaillallahu Wa Ash’hadu Anna MuhammadunAbd’uhu Wa Rasooluh’, This is known as Tashahhud. When you are reaching La’Jlaha make a circle in your right hand by joining the thumb with the middle finger and curl the small and it’s adjacent finger with the middle finger and on the word La lift your index finger but don’t move side to side and when you reach ‘illallahu’ straighten your hand back to normal. Now if you have more than two Ra.kats to pray then stand back up and pray more Rakats, but for a Farz Namaz there is no need to join another Surat after Alhamdo and then continue and when you reach your last Qaidah (sitting position) pray Tashahhud and then pray the DuroodSharif called Durood-e-lbrahim‘Allahumma Salleh Ala Sayyidina Muhammadin Wa’ala’ Aale Sayyidina Muhammadin Kama Sallaiyta Ala Sayyidina Ibraheema Wa’ Ala Aale Sayyidina Ibraheema InnakaHameedum Majeed -Allahumma Baarak Ala Sayyidina Muhammadin Wa’ Ala Aale Sayyidina Muhammadin Kama Baarakta Ala Sayyidina Ibraheem Wa’ Ala Aale Sayyidina Ibraheema Innaka Hameedum Majeed’ After this pray‘Allahumag Firii Wali Wale Dayya Wal Ustaad’e Wal Jamee’il Mu’mineena Wal Mu’meenat Wal Muslimeena Wal MuslimatAI’Ahya’eMinhum Wal Amwaat’e Innaka MujeebudDa’waatBirahmatikaYa Ar’hamarr’ahimeen’ or pray another Dua-e-Ma’soor or pray Allahumma Rabbana Aatina Fid DuniyaHasanatawWafil Akhirati Hasanataw Wa QinaAzaabanNaar’ Make sure you pray this by starting it with ‘Allahumma’ and then turn your head towards your right shoulder and say‘Assalamu Alai’kumWarah’matullah’ and then turn your head towards your left shoulder and repeat the same words again. The Namaz has now finished, so raise both your hands and pray any Dua for example‘Allahumma Rabbana Aatina Fid Duniya Hasanataw Wafil Akhirati Hasanataw Wa Qina Azaaban Naar’ then rub your hands over your face. This is the method for an Imam or a male praying Namaz on their own. If however, you are a Muqtadee meaning praying in congregation (Jamaat) and behind an Imam then don’t perform Qiraayat meaning don’t pray ‘Alhamdo’ or a Surat, whether the Imam is praying loudly or quietly. Qiraayat is not allowed in any Namaz if it is being prayed behind an Imam.

If the Namazee is a female then at the Takbeer-e-Tahrima she should lift her hands only upto her shoulders and then place her left hand on her chest and the right hand on top of it. When performing Rukoo she should only bend a little so that her hands reach her knees and she should not put pressure on her knees and keep her fingers tightly together and not to straighten her back like males. When performing Sijdah she should crawl up and perform Sijdah so that the arms are joined with the sides, her stomach is joined with her thighs and her thighs are crawled up with her shins and her feet are pointing outwards and are flat. In Qaidah she should have both her feet pointing outwards towards the right and are flat. She should sit on her left buttock and keep her hands in the middle of her thighs.

Order of Farz, Wajib. Sunnat and Mustahhab
  • Rule: In the above method some actions are Farz (obligatory) and therefore without performing these the Namaz will not count. Some actions are Wajib (necessary) and therefore to deliberately miss them is a sin and it would be necessary (Wajib) to repeat the Namaz and if they are missed by mistake then a ‘Sijdah-e-Sahoo’ would have to be performed at the end. Some are Sunnat-e-Maukida and therefore to make a habit of missing them is a sin and some are Mustahhab and therefore to perform will gain rewards and to miss will not be a sin.
Farz (Obligatory) actions within Namaz.

There are seven action within Namaz which are Farz.

  1. Takbeer-e-Tahrima – meaning the first ‘Allah-o-Akbar’ (or any other word which would praise Allah) with which the Namaz begins
  2. Qayaam – meaning to stand until the Farz Qiraayat is completed
  3. Qiraayat – meaning to pray at least one verse of the Holy Quran
  4. Rukooh – meaning to bend so that that the hands reach the knees
  5. Sujood – meaning the forehead to firmly touch the ground and at least one toe on each foot to be flat so that it’s base is touching the ground and it’s tip is pointing towards the Qibla
  6. Qaidah-e-Akhira – meaning when the Rakats of Namaz are completed to sit for the duration it takes so the whole of Tashahhud (attahiyat) is completed until ‘Rusooluh’
  7. Khurooj-e-Be’sunoo’i – meaning after Qaida-e-Akhira to perform an action with which the Namaz would finish, whether that be Salaam or to talk etc.
Wajib (necessary) actions of Namaz
  1. In the Takbeer-e-Tahrima to use the words ‘Allah-o-Akbar’
  2. To pray the whole of the Alhamdo Surat.
  3. To join a Surat or a verse (Ayat) with Alhamdo. In a Farz Namaz for the first two Rakats and in a Witr, Sunnat or Nafl Namaz in all the Rakats.
  4. To pray before a Surat or Ayat, Alhamdo only once.
  5. Between Alhamdo and a Surat not to pray anything except ‘Ameen’ and Bismillah…
  6. To go into Rukoo as soon as the Qirayat is finished
  7. To perform one Sijdah after another without having a delayed gap in between. The gap must be no longer than one Rukun, meaning the time it takes someone to say ‘Subhanallah’ three times.
  8. To pause between actions, meaning a gap of time the same as at least one ‘Subhanallah’ between, Rukoo, Sijdah, Quwmaa and Jalsa.
  9. Quwma, meaning to stand up straight after Rukoo.
  10. When in Sijdah to have three toes on each foot to be flat on the ground and the tips pointing towards Qibla.
  11. Jalsa, meaning to sit up between two Sijdahs.
  12. Qaidah-e-Oola, meaning to sit after two Rakats, if there are more than two Rakats in a Namaz, whether it is a Nafl (voluntary) Namaz.
  13. Not to continue further after Tashahhud (Attahiyat) in a Qaida-e-Oola for a Farz, Witr or Sunnat-e-Maukida Namaz.
  14. To pray in both Qaidahs the whole of Tashahhud, in fact, regardless of the amount of Qaidahs in a Namaz to pray the whole of Tashahhud is Wajib, if even one word is left out of Attahiytat the Wajib will be missed.
  15. In both Salaams the word Salaam is Wajib, the words ‘Alaikum Wa Rahmutullah’ is not Wajib.
  16. To pray ‘Dua-e-Kunoot’ in Witr.
  17. To perform Takbeer in Kunoot (To lift your hands and say Allah-o-Akbar in the third Rakat of Witr).
  18. All six Takbeers of Eid Namaz’s
  19. The Takbeers in the second rakat of the Eid Namaz and for them to have the words ‘Allah-o-Akbar.
  20. The Imam to pray loudly in all Jehri Namaz and to pray quietly in non Jehri Namaz.
  21. To pray all Farz and Wajib Namaz in routine (meaning to pray the before one’s before and the after one’s after).
  22. To perform only one Rukoo in every rakat and to perform only two Sijdahs.
  23. Not to perform a Qaidah before two rakats and not to perform a Qaida in the third rakat if it is a four rakat Namaz.
  24. To perform Sijdah-e-Tilawat if an Ayat of Sijdah has been prayed.
  25. If there has been an error (where a Wajib has been missed) then to perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo.
  26. There is not to be a gap between two Farz actions or between two Wajib actions or a Farz and a Wajib actions longer than the time it takes to say Subhanallah three times.
  27. If the Imam is performing Qirayat, whether it is loudly or quietly, the Muqtadees to remain completely quiet.
  28. Except for Qirayat, to follow the Imam in all the Wajibs.

Except for the Farz and Wajib actions, all the rest of the actions mentioned in the method of Namaz are either Sunnat or Mustahhab. They should not be missed on purpose, and if they are missed by mistake then it is not necessary to perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo nor repeat the Namaz. If however, you repeated the Namaz then it is a good thing. If you want to know in more detail the Sunnats and Mustahhabs then read either Bahar-e-Shariat or Fatawa-e-Razvia as we have not gone into small detail or abbreviated them here.


When is Sijdah-e-Sahoo Wajib ?

If those actions which are Wajib in Namaz are not performed by mistake, it is Wajib to perform the Sijdah-e-Sahoo to substitute for the action missed.

Method of performing Sijdah-e-Sahoo

The method of performing this is, when you finish praying ‘Attahiyat’ in the last Qaidah, turn your head to the right side and then perform two Sijdahs. Then repeat Attahiyat from the beginning and complete your Namaz.

  • Rule: If a Wajib was missed and you did not perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo and completed the Namaz, then it is Wajib to repeat the Namaz. Rule: If a Wajib is missed deliberately, then a to perform A Sijdah-e-Sahoo would not be sufficient and therefore it would be Wajib to repeat the Namaz. Rule: If any of the Farz actions are missed, then Sijdah-e-Sahoo would not compensate for them and therefore the Namaz would not count and to repeat the Namaz would be Farz.
Actions which by missing would not make the Sijdah-e-Sahoo necessary
  • Rule: If the actions that are Sunnat or Mustahhab in Namaz are missed, such as ‘Ta’awwuz’, ‘Tasmee’ ‘Aameen’, ‘Takbeers when changing positions’, the Tasbeehs (of Rukoo and Sijdahs) etc. it would not make it necessary to perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo, but the Namaz would count [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Guniya]. However, it would be better to repeat it.
  • Rule: If in one Namaz many Wajibs are missed, then the two Sijdahs of Sahoo would be sufficient, it is not necessary to perform a Sijdah-e-Sahoo for ever Wajib missed [Radd-ul-Mohtar, etc.].
  • Rule: If in the first Qaidah after Attahiyat and before standing for the third Rakat there is a delay as long as it takes to pray ‘Allahumma Salleh Ala Muhammad’ then Sijdah-e-Sahoo would become Wajib, whether you pray it or not, in both situations Sijdah-e-Sahoo would become Wajib [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If in Qiraayat etc at any time you start thinking and there is a gap long enough for someone to say ‘Subhanallah’ three times, then it would be Wajib to perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If you think that the first Qaidah is the last Qaidah in a four Rakat Namaz and you perform Salaam and then remember and stand back up and complete the Namaz, you must perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo [Alamgiri]. If you forgot to pause between actions then Sijdah-e-Sahoo is Wajib [Hindiya].
  • Rule: If a Muqtadee had not completed his ‘Attahiyat’ and the Imam stood up for the third Rakat, it is necessary for the Muqtadee to complete his Attahiyat, regardless of whether it causes delay.
  • Rule: If the Muqtadee had not prayed the Tasbeeh in a Rukoo or Sijdah three times and the Imam finished it and stood up, it is necessary for the Muqtadee to stand up and not finish the rest of the Tasbeeh.
  • Rule: If a person forgot to perform the first Qaidah and had only started standing up then he should sit back down and pray Attahiyat and the Namaz would be correct, a Sijdah-e-Sahoo would not be necessary. If however, he stood up and was close to completely, standing then he should stand up and continue with his Namaz and then finally perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo [Shareh Waqia, Hidaaya etc].
  • Rule: If you forgot to perform the last Qaidah and had not yet performed a Sijdah for the extra Rakat then you should sit back down straight away and perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo. If however, you had performed a Sijdah for the extra Rakat then except for Maghrib you can join another Rakat and they would all count as Nafl, because your Farz Namaz would not count and therefore you would have to pray the Farz Namaz again [Hidaaya, Shareh Waqia].
  • Rule: If in the last Qaidah you prayed Tasahhud and then stood back up, you should sit straight back down and as long as you have not performed a Sijdah for the extra Rakat, perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo and complete the Namaz. If however, you had performed a Sijdah in the extra Rakat, your Farz Namaz would still count but you should join another Rakat and then finally perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo and the last two Rakats would count as Nafl, but do not join another Rakat for Maghrib Namaz [Hidaaya, Shareh Waqia].
  • Rule: If in one Rakat you performed three Sijdahs or two Rukoos or forgot the first Qaidah then perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo.
  • Rule: Order of sequence is obligatory in Qayam, Rukoo, Sijdah and the last Qaidah, therefore, if you performed Rukoo before you performed Qayam then this Rukoo is cancelled and will not count and if then you perform another Rukoo your Namaz will count otherwise it will not, and in the same way if you performed Sijdah before the Rukoo and then performed the Rukoo and performed the Sijdah again after, then the Namaz will count.
  • Rule: Order of sequence is obligatory in Qayam, Rukoo, Sijdah and the last Qaidah meaning, whichever is due first should be done first and whichever is due next should be done next and if this done in,the wrong order then the Namaz will not count, for example, if someone performed Sijdah before Rukoo then their Namaz will not count, however, if they performed the Sijdah again after the Rukoo meaning they rectified the order of sequence again then their Namaz will count. In the same way if they perform Rukoo before Qayam and they stand back in Qayam and then perform another Rukoo, their Namaz will count Radd-ul-Mohtar]. All Qaidahs in Nafl Namaz are counted as last Qaidahs and therefore are obligatory and so if you forgot to perform a Qaidah and stood up then as long as you have not performed a Sijdah for the new Rakat sit back down and perform the Qaidah and then perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo and all Wajib Namaz are in the same rule as Farz Namaz, therefore if you forget to perform the first Qaidah of Witr then the same rule applies as a Farz Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If you forgot to pray Dua-e-Kunoot or forgot to perform the Takbeer-e-Kunoot then perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo. Takbeer-e-Kunoot means the Takbeer that is said in the third Rakat after Qirat and is done and then Dua-e-Kunoot is prayed [Alamgiri].
What is Sijdah-e-Tilaawat ?

This is the Sijdah which becomes Wajib when you pray or hear the verse of Sijdah. It’s proper method is to stand up and say Allaho-o-Akbar whilst going into Sijdah and then pray at least three times ‘Subhana Rabbi’al Aalaa’ and then whilst saying Allah-o-Akbar stand back up.

Sunnat way of performing Sijdah-e-Tilaawat
  • Rule:It is Sunnat to say at the start and the end ‘Allaho Akbar in Sijdah-e-Tilaawat. Also to start the Sijdah by standing up and then going into Sijdah and then standing back up again after. Both of these Qayams are Mustahhab [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  • Rule: If you did not stand before or after the Sijdah or you did not say Allaho Akbar or you did not pray ‘Subhana Rabbi’al Aala’, then even still your Sijdah will count. However, you should not miss Takbeer as it is against procedure [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: When saying the Takbeer you do not lift your hands nor do you pray Attahiyat or perform Salaam in Sijdah-e-Tilaawat [Tanweer, Bahar].
  • Rule: In total there are fourteen verses in the Holy Quran whereby whichever verse is prayed, both the person praying and listening will have to perform Sijdah-e-Tilaawat as it will become Wajib on them, whether the person listening made the intention of listening to it or not.
Conditions of Sijdah-e-Tilaawat
  • Rule:Except for Tahrimah, for Sijdah-e-Tilaawat all conditions remain which are in Namaz; For example, cleanliness, facing the Qibla, intention, time and covering of the body, also if you have access to water then you cannot perform Sijdah-e-Tilaawat by performing Tayammum [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
  • Rule: If a verse of Sijdah is prayed in Namaz then it is Wajib in Namaz to perform Sijdah and if you delay it you will become a sinner. Delay means to pray three or more verses after the verse of Sijdah. If however, the verse is at the end of a Surat then there is no harm in finishing the Surat. For example, in Surah Inshaaq if you performed Sijdah at the end of the Surat there is no harm.
  • Rule: If you prayed a verse of Sijdah in Namaz, but forgot to perform Sijdah then as long as you are in the state of Namaz (whether you have performed Salaam) then you must perform it and then perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If you pray a verse of Sijdah in Namaz then to perform it’s Sijdah is Wajib in Namaz not outside, and if you deliberately missed it then you are a sinner and repentance is necessary as long as you did not perform Rukooh and Sijdah straight after the verse.
  • Rule: It is not a condition to state in the intention for Sijdah-e-Tilaawat the verse that you have prayed, but a general intention of Sijdah-e-Tilaawat is sufficient.
  • Rule: Whatever action breaks the Namaz also breaks the Sijdah-e-Tilaawat, such as releasing wind, talking, laughing in Namaz etc. [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  • Rule: Sijdah does not become Wajib by writing a vferse of Sijdah or just by looking at the verse [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri, Guniya].
  • Rule: For the Sijdah to become Wajib, it is not necessary to pray the whole verse of Sijdah, but by just praying the word that makes the verse Wajib and a joining word before or after the word would make the Sijdah Wajib [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: By spelling or listening to the spelling of a verse of Sijdah does not make the Sijdah Wajib [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: If the translation of a verse of Sijdah is prayed or is heard then the Sijdah becomes Wajib, whether the person who heard it understands it or not that it was the translation of a verse of Sijdah. However, it is important that if he does not know then he should be informed. If however, the verse is prayed and then the translation is prayed then it is not necessary to inform him that this was the translation [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: If a woman on her menstrual cycle of bleeding after childbirth has prayed the verse then the Sijdah won’t be necessary for her to perform the Sijdah, however those who have heard her pray the verse will have to perform the Sijdah as it is still Wajib for them [Bahar].
  • Rule: Just as it does not become Wajib for a woman on her menstrual cycle or bleeding after childbirth to perform a Sijdah, it also does not become Wajib for her if she hears the verse.
  • Rule: If a person for whom it is obligatory to bathe has prayed the verse of Sijdah or heard the verse or a person who is not in Wuzu prays or hears it then it still becomes Wajib for them to perform a Sijdah.
  • Rule: If a child prays a verse of Sijdah then it becomes Wajib for those who hear it but not for the child [Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: If the Imam has prayed the verse of Sijdah but did not perform Sijdah, then the Muqtadee will also not perform Sijdah and continue following the Imam even though they might have heard the verse [Guniya]. Whenever the verse is prayed and for some reason the person praying or hearing do not perform the Sijdah then it is Mustahhab to pray "Sam’1 Na Wa Ata’na Gufranaka Rabbana Wa’ilaikal Masir [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: To pray the whole Surat and to miss the verse of Sijdah is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Qazi Khan, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If in one Mosque one verse is repeated many times or heard many times then only one Sijdah is Wajib even if different people have prayed it. Also if you pray a verse and you hear the same verse from someone else, then again only one Sijdah will be Wajib [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Changing of an Assembly
  • Rule: The assembly will not change by eating one or two bites, drinking one or two gulps, to stand, to walk one or two steps, to reply to a greeting, two talk a couple of words, to walk from one side of the house towards another side. If however, it is a large house with different rooms then the assembly will change by walking from one side to another. If you are in a boat and it is moving then the assembly will not change. The same rule should also apply to a train. If you are on an animal and the animal is moving then the assembly is changing but if you are praying Namaz on the animal then the assembly has not changed. The assembly will change if you eat three bites, or drink three gulps, or walking three steps in a field, to speak three words, to lie down and go to sleep, to pray the Nikah and to buy or sell something [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Guniya, Bahar].
  • Rule: To sit in an assembly for a while and to pray the Quran or perform a lecture or listen to a lecture or have a religious discussion does not change the assembly, but if between the same verse being repeated you perform a worldly action like to sew a piece of cloth etc. then the assembly will change [Radd-ul-Mokhtar].
  • Rule: If the person hearing the verse is paying attention and to perform the Sijdah would not be a strain on them then the verse should be prayed loudly otherwise it should be prayed quietly and if you are not sure whether they are paying attention or not then the verse should be prayed quietly [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: During the state of illness, theSildah can be performed by action only, also if you are on a journey and in a vehicle then you can perform action only to fulfil the Sijdah and it will count [Alamgiri etc.].
Sijdah-e-Shukr (Thanks)

The method of performing a Sijdah for thanking Allah is the same as for Sijdah-e-Tilaawat.

  • Rule: It is Mustahhab to perform the Sijdah-e-Shukr if a child is born, or you have gained wealth, or you have found a lost item, or your illness has gone better, or you have returned from a journey safely or you have obtained a gift.


  • Rule: Qiraayat should be so loud that if you are not deaf or there is no loud noise in the background, then you can hear what you are praying yourself and if it is not this loud then the Namaz will not count. In the same way all other situations that require verbal praying has the same rule, for example, slaughtering an animal and to say ‘Bismillah Allaho Akbar’, to give a divorce (Talaaq), to pray the verse of Sijdah that would make the Sijdah-e-Tilaawat Wajib, in all these situations the voice should be so loud that you can hear it yourself [Miraqul Falaah etc.].
  • Rule: It is Wajib for the Imam to pray loudly (Johr) in the first two Farz Rakats of Fajr, Maghrib and Isha and for the Rakats of Ju’ma, Eids, Tarawih and the Witr for Ramadan. It is Wajib for the Imam to pray quietly (Ahista) in the third Rakat of Maghrib, the third and fourth Rakat of Isha and all the Rakats of Zohr and Asr.
  • Rule: To pray loudly for the Imam means he prays loud enough that the people in the first row can hear and quietly means he can hear his voice himself.
  • Rule: To pray loudly but only one or two people next to you can hear is not counted as Johr but is counted as Ahista [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. In the loud (Johri) Namaz a person praying on their own has got the choice of praying loudly or quietly, it is better to pray loudly.
  • Rule: If a person praying on their own is praying a Qaza Namaz then it is Wajib to pray quietly in all Namaz [Durr-eMukhtar]. If a person was praying quietly and another person joined in then if it is a John Namaz then they must pray the rest loudly and it is not necessary to repeat the part he has prayed quietly.
  • Rule: If you forgot to add a Surat and went into Rukoo and then remembered, you must stand back up and pray the Surat and then perform the Rukoo again and finally perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo, if you do not perform the Rukooh again then the Namaz will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If you are not on a journey and you have enough time then it is Sunnat to pray ‘Tawal-e-Mufassal’ (long Surats) in Fajr and Zohr, ‘Awsat-e-Mufassal’ (medium Surats) in Asr and Isha and ‘Qasaar-e-Mufassal’ (short Surats) in Maghrib, whether you are an Imam or are praying on your own (Munfarid).
Surats which are Tawal, Awsat and Qasaar-e-Mufassal

Surats between Surah-e-Hijraat to Surah-e- Burooj are Tawal-e-Mufassal. Surats between Surah-e-Burooj to Surah Lamyakunallazi are known as Awsat-e-Mufassal and Surats from Lamyakun to the end are known as Qasaar-e-Mufassal.

  • Rule: If there is no rush in a journey then it is Sunnat to pray Surah-e-Burooj or an equivalent size Surat in Fajr and Zohr and in Asr and Isha a shorter Surat than that and in Maghrib to pray the short Surats of Qasaar-e-Mufassal, if however, you are in a hurry then you can pray whatever is easier [Alamgiri]. During times of difficulty such as the time is going to go or you are afraid of a thief or scared of an enemy then you can pray whatever you wish whether you are on a journey or not and even if you cannot complete the Wajibs of the Namaz you are allowed to miss them also. For example, the time of Fajr is so short that you can only pray one verse each then do this [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar] but after the Sun has risen repeat this Namaz [Bahar].
  • Rule: Whilst praying the Sunnats of Fajr, there is a fear that the Jamaat for the Farz Namaz will be missed then you should only perform the Wajibs, you should miss Sana and Ta’awwuz and in Rukooh and Sijdah you should only pray the Tasbeeh once [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: In Witr Namaz the Holy Prophet prayed ‘Sabb-I-ismi Rabb’l’kal A’alaa’ in the first Rakaat and ‘QuI Yaa Ayyuhal Kaafiroon’ in the second Rakaat and ‘QuI Huwal Lah Ho Ahad in the third Rakaat. Therefore, as a gesture these Surats should be prayed and on occasions ‘Inna Anzalna’ instead of ‘Sabb-I-Ismi’.
  • Rule: It is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi to pray the Holy Quran backwards, for example, to pray ‘QuI Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon’ in the first Rakaat and ‘Alam Tara Kaifa’ in the second Rakaat is not allowed, however, if it is done by mistake then there is no harm.
  • Rule: There is no harm in teaching the Para Amma backwards to children so that it is easy to learn [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If by mistake you prayed in the second Rakaat an earlier Surat than the first Rakaat, then whether it is only one word you have prayed you must continue, you are not allowed to stop and start another one. For example, in the first Rakaat you prayed ‘QuI Yaa Ayyuhal Kaafiroon’ and in the second Rakaat you started by mistake ‘Alam Tara’ then you must continue this Surat.
The Rule of Missing a Surat in Between
  • Rule: To miss a Surat between two Surats is Makrooh. However, if the middle Surat is a larger Surat than the first one then this is allowed. For example, there is no harm in praying ‘Inna Anzalna’ after ‘Watteena Wazzaytoona’, however, you should not pray ‘QuI Huwallah’ after ‘Iza Jaa’a’ [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: It is preferable if the Qiraayat in Farz Namaz in the first Rakaat is slightly longer than the second Rakaat and in Fajr the Qiraayat should be two thirds and one third in the second Rakaat [Alamgiri]. It is Sunnat in Jum’a and Eid Namaz to pray ‘Sabb-l-lsmi’ in the first Rakaat and ‘Hal Ataaka’ in the second Rakaat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtaar].
  • Rule: Pray equal size Surats in both Rakaats of Sunnat and Nafl Namaz [Muniya]. To pray the same Surat in both Rakaats in a Nafl Namaz or to repeat the same Surat many times in one Rakaat is perfectly allowed [Guniya].
To make a mistake in Qiraayat

The general rule here is that if a mistake is made and the whole meaning changes then the Namaz will break, otherwise not.
Rule: If the reason of praying a different letter instead of the proper letter is because you cannot pray the proper letter then it is still necessary for you to try and pronounce correctly. However, if it is due to carelessness, like some of today’s Hafiz and Alims do have the abilty but are careless and hence miss letters out then if the meaning of the verse changes then the Namaz will be void and all Namaz prayed like this will have to be made Qaza.

Action for those who cannot pronounce correctly

It is necessary for those people who cannot pronounce letters correctly to try day and night until they can. If they have the opportunity to pray Namaz behind those who can pronounce correctly then they should always do this. Or they can pray the verses which they can pronounce correctly, and if both options cannot be done then with effort their Namaz will count and people like them can pray behind people like this [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat etc.].

  • Rule: If someone prays ‘Subhana Rabbi-al Azueem’ as ‘Subhana Rabbi-al-Ajeem’ (or uses a zeh instead of a zoi) then their Namaz will break.
Praying the Holy Quran outside Namaz
  • Rule: The Holy Quran should be prayed in a clear and concise manner. It should not be sung as this is not allowed but in fact should be taken care that the pronunciation is done accurately.
  • Rule: It is better to pray the Quran by looking at it than off by heart [Alamgiri]. It is Mustahhab to perform Wuzu, face the Qibla, wear nice clothes and pray the Quran, and when starting to pray first of all say ‘A’oozubillah..’as this is Wajib and when starting a Surat pray ‘Bismillah..’ as this is Sunnat otherwise if you are praying a Mustahhab verse and it is referring to Allah’s self then to pray Bismillah after A’oozubillah is Maukidah. If you talk between praying a verse and your conversation is of a worldly nature then pray Bismillah again, and if it is of a religious nature such as replying to a Salaam, or answering to the Azaan, or saying ‘Subhanallah’ or praying the Kalima then there is no need to say A’oozubillah again [Guniya etc.].
  • Rule: If you have started praying from Surah Baraat then pray both A’oozubillah and Bismillah. If however, Surah Baraat comes in the duration of you praying then continue and don’t pray Bismilla. The commonly known statement that if you start with Surah Baraat there is still no need to pray A’oozobillah or Bismillah is wrong. The other statement that if Surah Baraat comes in the duration of you praying then pray A’oozubillah but not Bismillah is also wrong [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: It is not good to finish the whole Quran in less than three days [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: When there is a Quran praying ceremony (Khatam) then it is better to pray ‘QuI Huwallaho Ahad’ three times.
  • Rule: There is no harm in praying the Quran whilst lying down as long as the legs are folded and the mouth is open, also there is no harm in praying the Quran whilst walking and working as long as you are not distracted, otherwise it is Makrooh [Guniya].
  • Rule: When the Holy Quran is prayed loudly in a gathering then it is obligatory for all present to listen if the reason for the gathering is to pray the Quran, otherwise if only one listens then it is sufficient regardless if the others are busy in their work [Guniya, Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If all the people in the gathering pray the Quran loudly then this is Haram. Often in an Urs or Fatiha all the people pray the Quran loudly individually, this is Haram. If there are a few people in a gathering then all should pray quietly [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: It is not allowed to pray the Quran in town centres and where people are working because if people do not listen then the sin will be upon the person praying.
  • Rule: If while praying the Quran a religious leader, Sultan, king, an Islamic scholar, a spiritual leader etc walk into the room then you are allowed to stop and stand up for respect [Guniya, Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If a person is praying the Quran incorrectly then it is Wajib for the person listening to correct them, but the condition is that there is no jealously or hatred in doing so [Guniya, Bahar].
Respecting the Quran
  • Rule: It is better to pray the Holy Quran loudly as long as you do not disturb a person praying Namaz, or sleeping, or an ill person.
  • Rule: It is not a good thing to write the Quran on walls or Mehrabs.
  • Rule: It is very bad to learn the Quran off by heart and then forgetting it. Such a person will wake up blind and with leprosy on the day of judgement.
  • Rule: You should not have your back towards the Holy Quran, or spread your legs around it, or raise your feet higher than it, or stand on a higher place whilst placing the Quran in a lower place.
  • Rule: No book should be placed on top of the Quran whether it is a book of Fiqh or Hadith.
  • Rule: If the Quran becomes very wet or torn and can no longer be used to pray from, then it should be wrapped and buried in a clean place, there should also be a coffin so that soil does not get on it.
  • Rule: An old Quran which can no longer be of use should not be burnt but buried.
  • Rule: A cloth should not be placed on top of the case that contains the Quran.
  • Rule: If a person has left the Quran in their house for blessings and auspiciousness and does not pray it then there is no sin and because the intention is good one they will gain reward [Qazi Khan].

There has been a lot of emphasis given to Jamaat and it carries a lot of reward, upto the extent that a Namaz prayed with Jamaat gains reward twenty seven times more than a Namaz prayed on it’s own.

  • Rule: Jamaat is Wajib for males and to miss it even once without cause is a sin and should be punished and for those who make a habit of missing Jamaat is a wrongdoer (Fasiq) and his statement for witnessing cannot be accepted and should be severely punished. If his neighbours ignored the fact that he was missing Jamaat then they are also sinners.
What Namaz have the condition of Jamaat
  • Rule: For Friday prayers (Ju’ma) and Eid prayers, Jamaat is a condition and without Jamaat the Namaz cannot be prayed.
  • Rule: The Tarawih Namaz is Sunnat-e-Kifayya, meaning if some people within an area performed it then the rest will not be responsible and if no-one prayed it in an area then all will have done a bad thing and would be responsible.
  • Rule: Jamaat in the Witr prayer during the month of Ramadan is Mustah’hab.
  • Rule: Jamaat in Sunnat and Nafl Namaz is Makrooh and except for the month of Ramadan it is also Makrooh for Witr Namaz.
  • Rule: If  you are aware that if by washing the body parts three times in Wuzu, you will miss a Rakaat then it is better to only wash them once and obtain the Rakaat. If you are aware tnat by washing me vvuzu pans three times you will not miss a Rakaat but will miss the first Takbeer, then it is better to wash the parts three times [Sagiri, Bahar-e-Shariat].
Jamaat Thania (Duplicate Jamaat)
  • Rule: If in an area there is a fixed Imam in a Mosque and after calling the Azaan and Iqamat and praying the Sunnats, the Imam has then lead the Jamaat prayers, then to pray that Namaz again standing a different Jamaat is Makrooh after calling the Azaan and Iqamat again. If however, the second Jamaat is prayed without calling another Azaan then there is no problem as long as it is prayed slightly away from the Mehrab. If the first Jamaat was prayed without an Azaan or with a quiet Azaan or by other non regular people then the Jamaat is to be called again and this second Jamaat is not Jamaat Thania. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
What Reasons allow the Jamaat to be missed
  • Rule: The following reasons can be used to miss Jamaat;
  • Such an illness that it would be very difficult to go to the Mosque
  • The weather is very cold or very cloudy, or very windy
  • You have a bad urge of excretion, urination or releasing wind
  • You are scared of an aggressor
  • You are scared that you will miss your group
  • You are blind or disabled
  • You are so old that it is very difficult to go to the Mosque
  • You are afraid that your possession or food will be destroyed
  • A person who is poor and owes money and is scared of bumping into the lender
  • You are looking after an ill person and if you leave them they will have difficulty or be afraid.

All the above are causes that allow you to miss Jamaat.

  • Rule: Women are not allowed to attend any Jamaat, not day Namaz or night Namaz, or Ju’ma and Eid, whether she is young or old. The same rule applies for women attending lectures, i.e. they are not allowed to attend [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat].
Where does a single Muqtadee stand ?
  • Rule: A single male Muqtadee, even if he is a child should stand on the right side and parallel with the Imam. It is Makrooh for a single Muqtadee to stand on the Imam’s left side or behind the Imam. If there are two Muqtadees then they should stand behind the Imam, to parallel with the Imam is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. If there are more than two Muqtadees then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi to stand parallel with the Imam [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: One person was stood in line with the Imam and then another person joined then the Imam should go forward and the person that has joined the Jamaat should stand next to the present Muqtadee. If the Imam cannot move forward then the Muqtadee should move backwards or the person arriving should pull the Muqtadee back. However, if there is only one Muqtadee then it is better if he comes back and if there are two then it is better for the Imam to move forward.

Rules of rows (Saff)

  • Rule: The rows should be straight and the people should be joined alongside each other. There should not be a gap between the people in the rows and the shoulders should be level and the Imam should be in the front in the middle.
  • Rule: It is better to stand in the first row and close to the Imam. However, in the Jananza Namaz it is better to stand in the back row [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: The Muqtadee should say the Takbeer-e-Tahrima with or after the Imam. If the Muqtadee said the word ‘Allah’ with the Imam and ‘Akbar’ before the Imam then the Namaz will not count.
  • Rule: The Muqtadee cannot pray the Quran in any Namaz, not when the Imam prays loudly or quietly because whatever the Imam prays is sufficient for the Muqtadee [Hidaya etc.].
  • Rule: The method of the rows should be that the men are in the front rows then children then finally women [Hidaya].

Who should be an Imam

  • Rule: The Imam should be a Muslim, male, sane, adult, one who knows the rules of Namaz and a non Ma’zoor (has no illness). If any of the above six aspects are not found in an Imam then the Namaz will not count behind him.
  • Rule: A Ma’zoor can be an Imam for a Muqtadee with the same illness or worse than him. If however, both the Imam and Muqtadee have two different types of illnesses e.g. one suffers from releasing wind and the other suffers from droplets of urine then they cannot be an Imam for each other [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Rule: A person with a Tayammum can be an Imam for a person with Wuzu [Hidaya etc.].
  • Rule: A person who performs Masah over leather socks can be an Imam for a person washing his feet [Hidaya etc.].
  • Rule: A person who prays Namaz standing can be a Muqtadee of a person who prays Namaz seated [Hidaya].
  • Rule: The person who performs Rukooh and Sijdah cannot pray behind a person who prays by action only. However, if both the Imam and Muqtadee both pray with actions then they can follow each other [Hidaya].
  • Rule: A naked person cannot be an Imam of a person who has covered his body [Hidaya].
Order of praying Namaz behind a person with wrong beliefs
  • Rule: To make a ‘Bud Mazhab’ (person with corrupt beliefs) whose beliefs have not gone outside the folds of Islam is a sin and to pray a Namaz behind him would make the Namaz Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and would have to be repeated as this would be Wajib[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: To make an open wrongdoer (Fasiq Mu’allin) such as a person who drinks alcohol, gambles, adulterer, one who obtains interest money, one who tells tales etc. those who commit big sins, an Imam, is a sin and Namaz behind them would be Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and to repeat it is Wajib [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]
  • Rule: Namaz behind those Bad Mazhabs whose beliefs have gone out of the folds of Islam such as Rafzi (Shiites, even if they only reject the fact of Hazrat Abubakr being a Caliph or a Sahhabi or insults the Shaikhain Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhuma), those who believe that the Holy Quran is man made, those who reject intercession or seeing Allah on the day of Hashr, or the punishment of the grave or the existence of Kiraman Katibeen cannot be performed [Alamgiri, Guniya]. There is an even more stricter rule for those who call themselves Muslims and in fact follow the Sunnats but still reject some important beliefs of religion (Zarooriyat-e-Deen) and insult Allah and His Prophet or at least believe those who insult, as Muslims, Namaz behind these is also strictly not allowed.
Order of following a Fasiq
  • Rule: Following a Fasiq is not allowed except for in Ju’ma as there is no alternative for this, for all the other Namaz if there are other Mosques in the vicinity then you should go. If there are other nearby Mosques that perform the Ju’ma prayers then you should go there [Guniya, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Fatahul Qadir].
  • Rule: For the Imam to stand alone on a higher platform is Makrooh, if the height is small then it is Makrooh Tanzihi and if the height is big the it is Makrooh Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  • Rule: If the Imam is in a lower place and the Muqtadees in a higher place it is also Makrooh and is against the Sunnat [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  • Rule: A Masbook when finishing his missed Rakaats is a Munfarid.

Definition of a Masbook

  • Rule: A Masbook is a person who joins in the Jamaat after the Imam has already prayed some Rakaats and he remains with the Jamaat until the end of the Namaz. A Munfarid is a person who prays the Namaz on his own and not with Jamaat.
  • Rule: If a Masbook found the Imam in the Qaidah then he should say Allah-o-Akbar whilst standing and fold his arms like normal in Qayam, then whilst saying Allah-o-Akbar he should sit down and join the Jamaat. If he found them in Rukooh or Sijdah then he should do the same by performing Takbeer-e-Tahrima and then join the Jamaat, if he however, when saying the first Allah-o-Akbar bent too far as if already nearly in Rukooh then the Namaz will not count.
  • Rule: If the Masbook joined the Jamaat for a four Rakaat Namaz in the fourth Rakaat then after the Imam has performed the Salaam he should stand up. He should then pray one Rakaat with Alhamdo and Surat and then sit down and perform Qaidah. He should then stand back up and pray Alhamdo and Surat in this Rakaat and then perform another Rakaat and pray only Alhamdo and then go into the last Qaidah and finish the Namaz as normal. Meaning except for the Qaidah with the Imam he should perform two more Qaidahs. The first Qaidah after one Rakaat and the other Qaidah after two more Rakaats.
  • Rule: If the Masbook joins the Maghrib Namaz in the third Rakaat then after the Imam has performed Salaam he should stand up and pray Alhamdo and a Surat and then perform Rukooh and Sijdah and then perform a Qaidah. He should then stand back up and pray another Rakaat with Alhamdo and Surat and then perform Rukooh and Sijdah and the perform the last Qaidah and finish the Namaz as normal. Meaning in both the Rakaats you have to perform a Qaidah and you have to pray Alhamdo and a Surat so in this situation there has been two additional Qaidahs after the Imam has performed Salaam.
  • Rule: If you have joined the Jamaat in the third Rakaat of a four Rakaat Namaz then after the Imam has performed Salaam pray two Rakaats and in both Rakaats you must pray Alhamdo and a Surat and then perform the last Qaidah and finish the Namaz as usual.
  • Rule: If you have missed the first Rakaat then after the Imam has performed Salaam pray one Rakaat with Alhamdo and a Surat.
  • Rule: If the Masbook performed Salaam with the Imam by mistake then the Namaz has not gone but he should stand up and finish his Namaz. If he performed the Salaam with the Imam exactly at the same time then no Sijdah-e-Sahoo is necessary and if the Salaam was performed after the Imaam then Sijdah-e-Sahoo is Wajib. If the Masbook performed the Salaam with the Imam deliberately thinking that he should perform the Salaam with the Imam then his Namaz has become void and he will have to pray it again [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

When you should break a Farz Namaz and join the Jamaat

  • Rule: Someone started a four Rakaat Farz Namaz alone and he had not yet performed the Sijdah of the first Rakaat and a group next to him started the Namaz with Jamaat, then he should break his Namaz and join the Namaz. Also for Fajr and Maghrib even if he has performed the Sijdah for the first Rakaat, he should still break the Namaz and join the Jamaat.
  • Rule: If in the four Rakaat Namaz he has performed a Sijdah for the first Rakaat then he should not break the Namaz but pray two Rakaats and then finish the Namaz after the second Rakaat, and then he should join the Jamaat.
  • Rule: If he has prayed three Rakaats then he cannot break the Namaz but he should finish his Namaz alone and then he can join the Jamaat with the intention of praying a Nafl Namaz. He however, cannot join the Jamaat with the intention of Nafl after Asr Namaz because you cannot pray a Nafl after Asr Namaz.
  • Rule: In a four Rakaat Namaz you had not performed the Sijdah for the third Rakaat then you should break the Namaz and join the Jamaat.
  • Rule: If you want to break the Namaz then there is no need to sit down but whilst standing up make the intention to break it and perform Salaam to one side.
  • Rule: If you started a Nafl, Sunnat or a Qaza Namaz and a Jamaat started then do not break the Namaz but join the Jamaat after finishing your Namaz. If you started a Nafl Namaz with the intention of four Rakaats and had only prayed one or two then finish two Rakaats and join the Jamaat. If you are in the third Rakaat then finish the Namaz and then join the Jamaat.
  • Rule: To join the Jamaat you can only break the Namaz when the Jamaat is being started where you are praying. If you are praying in the home and the Jamaat has started at the Mosque or you are praying in one Mosque and a Jamaat has started in another Mosque then you cannot break the Namaz to join that Jamaat, even if you have not performed the Sijdah of the first Rakaat you still cannot break the Namaz [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: It is obligatory for the Muqtadee to follow the Imam for the obligatory actions of the Namaz, meaning, if the Muqtadee performed an obligatory action before the Imam and did not do at the same time or after the Imam then the Namaz will become void. For example the Muqtadee went into the Sijdah before the Imam and the Imam had not yet gone into Sijdah and the Muqtadee lifted his head from Sijdah then his Namaz will become void unless he repeats that Sijdah after the Imam then his Namaz will not become void [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If the Muqtadee performed the Sijdah before the Imam but the Imam went into the Sijdah before the Muqtadee lifted his head, then the Sijdah will count but to do this is Haram [Alamgih].
  • Rule: It is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi for a Muqtadee to stand at the back on his own if there is space in the rows in front. If there is no space available then there is no problem, however, if he can, he should pull someone from in front backwards so that he can stand adjacent to each other. He must remember that the person he is pulling back is aware of this rule otherwise he might break his Namaz [Alamgiri] and if necessary then he should make an indication and if the other person does not come back to the last row then it won’t be Makrooh to pray alone in the last row [Fatahul Qadir, Bahar-e-Shariat].

Method of starting a Jamaat

The Jamaat should be set up as follows; when the Mustahhab time for Namaz arrives then the Azaan should be called. The people should then attend the Mosque or where the Namaz is going to take place with Wuzu and if they have not prayed the Sunnats at home then they should pray them and then sit down ready in rows and the Imam should sit in his place. The Mu’azzin should then call the Iqamat and when he reaches ‘Hayya Alal Falaah’ all the people and the Imam should stand up and just before ‘Qad Qamatis Salaat’ the Imam should make the intention and say Allaho-Akbar and start the Namaz, the Muqtadee should follow the Imam and say Allaho-Akbar and pray Thana and then the Muqtadees should remain quiet and the Imam should continue and when the Imam goes into Rukooh and Sijdah the Muqtadees should follow and complete the Namaz with the Imam. Except for Alhamdo and a Surat everything that is prayed in Namaz should be prayed by the Muqtadees. If someone comes after some Rakaats have already been prayed then he should make the intention and join the Jamaat. At the end when the Imam performs Salaam he should not perform Salaam but stand up and finish the Rakaats off that he missed and then perform Salaam and finish the Namaz. After the Salaam the Imam should turn to his right or left side and face the Muqtadees and raise his hands in front of his chest and perform Dua and the Muqtadees should also perform Dua. After the Dua they should move from their place and pray the Sunnats etc.

  • Rule: The Imam should say the Takbeer-e-Tahrima before ‘Qad Qamatis Salaat’ and the Muqtadees should say it after the Imam [Alamgiri].

Actions that break the Namaz

  • Rule: Speaking nullifies the Namaz, meaning to speak in Namaz would break the Namaz whether it was done purposely or by mistake one half of a word or more.
  • Rule: Speech that breaks the Namaz is when the voice is loud enough so that you can hear it yourself even if it makes no sense.
  • Rule: If you greet someone even by mistake the Namaz will break whether you have only got to say ‘Assalam’ and have not had the chance to say ‘Alaikum’.
  • Rule: If you reply to someone by voice then the Namaz will break and if you make an indication by hand or head then this is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If you sneeze in Namaz then do not say ‘Alhamdolillah’, if however, you do the Namaz will not break [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If you say ‘Alhamdolillah’ in reply to hearing good news or when hearing bad news ‘Inna Lillahe Wa inna ilaihi Ra’ji’oon’ or when you are shocked ‘Subhanallah’ or ‘Allaho Akbar’ then the Namaz will break, if the words are not said in reply to the news then the Namaz will not break.
  • Rule: When clearing the throat and two words are said such as ‘Akh too’ and there is not a real necessity then the Namaz will break. If there is a real need such as for a health reason or you needed to clear your throat because when praying the Quran you had difficulty, or you needed to inform the Imam of a mistake, or you needed to make someone aware that you were praying the Namaz then the Namaz will not break.
  • Rule: If the Muqtadee corrected someone except for his Imam by saying a verse of the Quran then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: If the Imam took a correction off anyone except for his Muqtadees then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: If someone due to pain or difficulty said ‘aah’ ‘ooh’ ‘oof ‘tuf or cried out loudly and a sound was heard then the Namaz will break. If someone cried and no sound was heard only tears dropped then the Namaz will not break [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. If from an ill person the words ‘aah’ ‘ooh’ ‘tuf came out without his control then the Namaz will not break. In the same way the words that come out when sneezing, coughing, yawning which are without control does not break the Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If when blowing, no noise is made then this is the same as breathing and the Namaz does not break but to do this on purpose is Makrooh, and if by blowing, two words are said such as ‘oof ‘tuf then the Namaz will break [Guniya].
  • Rule: If when praying the Quran you physically read it whilst in Namaz or read it off the Mehrab will break the Namaz. If you are praying the Quranoff by heart and your view went on the Mehrab or somewhere where the Quran was written then the Namaz will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If you perform Amal-e-Kasir and is not part of Namaz or done to correct the Namaz, then the Namaz will break. Amal-e-Qalil will not break the Namaz. Amar-e-Kasir is an act whereby if someone from far looked at the person praying Namaz, they would be certain that he is not in Namaz or they have a definite doubt that they are in Namaz and this would break the Namaz. Amal-e-Qalil is when a person from far has doubt whether he is in Namaz or not, then this would not break the Namaz.
  • Rule: If you wore a top or trousers or a ‘Tehband’ whilst in Namaz then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: To eat or drink in Namaz will break the Namaz, whether it is large in quantity or small, whether it was eaten by mistake or deliberately upto the extent that if an item the size of a linseed was swallowed without even chewing it or a drop of water fell into the mouth and you swallowed it, then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: Death, insanity, unconsciousness, all will break the Namaz. If you wake up before the time has passed then perform the Ada Namaz again, and if you wake up after the time of Namaz then perform Qaza, as long as it is within twenty four hours meaning before the time of six Namaz has passed. If you regain consciousness or sanity after six Namaz has passed then the Qaza is not Wajib [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If you broke your Wuzu deliberately or for some reason a bath became obligatory, then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: If you missed an obligatory aspect of Namaz and did not perform it in that Namaz then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: If you missed a condition of Namaz without cause, then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: If after the last Qaidah you remembered that you had to perform a Sijdah for that Namaz or a Sijdah for Tilaawat and you performed that and then did not repeat the last Qaidah, then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: If you performed an act whilst you were sleeping in Namaz and then you woke up again and did not perform that act again, then the Namaz will not count.

When can you kill a snake or scorpion whilst in Namaz

  • Rule: The Namaz will not break by killing a snake or scorpion as long as you do not have to move more than three steps or hit more than three strikes. If you have to move more than three steps or have to make more than three strikes then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: You have the permission to kill a snake or scorpion whilst praying Namaz even if it breaks the Namaz.
  • Rule: It is only a good thing to kill a snake or scorpion when it comes in front of you and you are afraid it might bite you. If you are sure it will not harm you then it is Makrooh [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: By scratching three times in one act breaks the Namaz. Meaning if you scratch and then replace your hand, you scratch again and replace your hand and you scratch again and replace your hand then your Namaz will break. If you move your hand once and scratch many times then this would be regarded as scratching just once and therefore the Namaz will not break [Alamgiri, Guniya].
  • Rule: Whilst in the Takbeers you mispronounced the words Allah-o-Akbar by saying Aallah or Aakbar or Akbaar, then in all these situations the Namaz will break. If you mispronounced Allah-o-Akbar in the Takbeer-e-Tahrima then the Namaz would not start [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. Whilst praying the Quran you make such a mistake whereby the meaning would change then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: If someone crosses in front of a Namazee then whether it be an animal or a person the Namaz does not break. However, the person crossing will have caused a big sin. If the person was aware of how much of a sin this is then he would wait a hundred years stood still rather than crossing, in fact he would rather be buried there than cross the Namazee.
  • Rule: If a person crosses a Namazee in a field and leaves a space of three feet distance (From the place where he performs Sijdah) then there is no harm, however, he cannot do this in a house or Mosque.
  • Rule: If there is an object in front of the Namazee then you can cross the Namazee with the object in between.

Definition of an object
An object is such an item that will cause an obstruction.

  • Rule: An object should be at least one arm’s length in height and one finger in width and a maximum of three arm lengths in height [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: It is better to put the object in line with the right eyebrow.

What should the object be made of

The object can be of a tree, human or animal [Guniya].

  • Rule: The object for an Imam is sufficient for the Muqtadee, meaning if someone crossed a Muqtadee and not the Imam but an object was placed in front of the Imam then there is no harm [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. If a Namazee wanted to stop someone crossing him then he should say ‘Subhanallah’ loudly or start praying the Quran loudly or put his hand out but he must be aware that he does not do it too many times otherwise it would end up being Amal-e-Kasir and therefore the Namaz will break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].


To play with the clothes, body or beard is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.

To fold your clothing. To lift your clothing up from the front or behind when going into Sijdah even if it is getting in the way it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, if it is not getting in the way then it is even more Makrooh.

To hang a piece of clothing whereby both ends are hanging, like from the head or shoulders, such as a scarf etc. then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.

If you did not put your arms through the sleeves ana just let them hang, then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

The order of hanging clothes in Namaz
  • Rule: To put a handkerchief on the shoulder whereby one end is hanging in front and the other hanging at the back is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
  • Rule: To wear a shawl or blanket whereby both ends are hanging down from each shoulder is not allowed and is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. However, if one end is hanging from one shoulder and the other is wrapped round the body and goes back over the shoulder, then there is no harm [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: To fold a piece of clothing (sleeves or trouser leg) upwards or inwards is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, whether it was done before praying Namaz or whilst in Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: For a male to pray Namaz whilst having the hair tied in a knot is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, and if he does this whilst praying Namaz then the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: To move stones whilst praying Namaz is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. However, if you cannot perform the Sijdah as per the Sunnat then it is Sunnat to move them once. If you cannot perform the Wajib aspects of the Sijdah then it is Wajib to move them as many times necessary to perform the Sijdah properly [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: To interlock the fingers meaning to insert one hand’s fingers into another hand’s fingers is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc], to do this whilst going to Namaz or whilst waiting for Namaz is also Makrooh.
  • Rule: To put your hands on your hips is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and you should not do this outside of Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: To move your head from one side to another is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, even if it is only a small movement. If you do not move your head but just your eyeballs and is without reason then it is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi, if however, you look for a reason to ensure your safety etc. then there is no harm. To look upto the sky is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
  • Rule: To sit between Tashahhud and Sijdah like a dog (meaning to join the knees with the chest and to lay the arms flat on the ground) and for men to lay their arms flat when performing Sijdah is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
  • Rule: To wrap yourself inside your clothes or a blanket whereby your hands cannot be seen is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. Also to do this outside of Namaz is also Makrooh and in a place of danger it is forbidden. To hide your mouth and face is also Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. To pray Namaz whilst someone is sat in front of you facing you is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.

What is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi ?

  • Rule: To cough without reason or to yawn without reason is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. If you yawn naturally then there is no harm but you should try and stop it and if you cannot then you should bite your lips and if you still cannot then cover your mouth with your hand, whilst in Qayam use your right hand and in all other position use your left.
  • Rule: To pray Namaz with only your trousers or ‘Tehband’ on and there is another blanket on top available then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, and if you have no other clothing available then there is no harm.
  • Rule: To delay in the Namaz because you are waiting for someone to join you is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. If you are delaying it so that they can join the Namaz then it is all right as long as it is no longer than saying ‘Subhanallah’ twice [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: To pray Namaz with a grave in front and nothing in between is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].

To pray Namaz on someone else’s land

  • Rule: If the land has been stolen or a field where crops are going or a ploughed field then to pray Namaz there is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: In a cemetery where a place is allocated for Namaz and is does not contain a grave then to pray their is no problem. The problem is when there is a grave in front of where you are praying Namaz and there is no object in between, otherwise if there is a grave on your left, right or behind or there is a grave in front but there is an object in between you and the grave then there is no harm in praying Namaz there [Alamgiri, Guniya, Qazi Khan].

To enter a place of worship for Infidels

  • Rule: To pray Namaz in an Infidel’s place of worship is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi because it is a place for the devil. In fact you are not allowed to go inside them.
Order of praying Namaz wearing clothes inside out
  • Rule: To wear clothes inside out or to cover yourself with them (with them inside out) is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. Also to wear a coat and not to tie the belt or to wear a jacket and not to fasten the buttons if you are not wearing anything underneath and therefore your chest is left uncovered then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and if you are wearing something underneath it is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi [Bahar-e-Shariat].
Rule of photography
  • Rule: To wear a piece of clothing with a photograph on it of a living being will make the Namaz Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. Except for Namaz to wear such clothes is not allowed.
  • Rule: If a photograph is over the head or hung on the wall or is where you are performing a Sijdah, then Namaz will be Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. In the same way if a photograph is on the left or right side of the Namazee then the Namaz will be Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, if it is behind him then it is still Makrooh but less than it being on either side.
  • Rule: If the photograph is on the ground and you are not performing Sijdah on it then there is no harm [Hidaya, Fatahul Qadir].
  • Rule: If the photograph is not of a living being such as, mountain, stream, flowers, building etc. then there is no harm [Fatahul Qadir]. If a photograph is enclosed in a bag or in your pocket then there is no harm in Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: It you are wearing a piece of clothing containing a photograph on it and you wear another piece on top without a photo on it and it also covers the photo then there is no harm in the Namaz [Radd-ut-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If a photograph is in a position of disrespect such as, on the floor where you take off your shoes or you clean your shoes on it or walk over it, as long as it is not on the ground where you perform Sijdah then there is no harm even if it is in the house [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If the photograph is so small that when looking at it standing up you cannot differentiate the body parts on the photograph then by having it on the right, left, front or behind the Namazee, it will not make the Namaz Makrooh.
  • Rule: If the whole of the face has been destroyed on the photo then there is no harm [Hidaya, etc.]
  • Rule: The rules above are for when praying Namaz. As far as keeping a photo, it has been quoted in the Hadith that if there is a photo or a dog in the house then me angels or mercy do not enter it, this is relating to a photo which has not been kept as a form of disrespect or when looking at it you can differentiate the body parts, otherwise it is all right [Fatahul Qadir].
  • Rule: To make or have made a photo is Haram, whether it is hand or machine made, the order is the same.

Makrooh-e- Tanzihi

  • Rule: In Sijdah or Rukooh, to say the Tasbeeh less than three times is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. If however, you do this because there isn’t enough time or you are going to miss the train, then there is no problem.
  • Rule: To pray Namaz in your working clothes is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. If however, no other clothes are available then there is no harm.

Praying Namaz with the head uncovered

  • Rule: To pray Namaz with the head uncovered due to idleness, meaning by wearing a topi you feel pressure or feel hot, then it is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. If you don’t wear a topi or an Amama (turban) because you feel that the Namaz is not worth and you hold no value of Namaz then this is Kufr. If you do not wear a hat so that you can concentrate on the Namaz and gain more satisfaction then it is Mustahhab [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If the topi falls off in Namaz then to lift it up and put it back on is better as long as Amal Kasir does not occur (e.g. lifting it using both hands). If the topi has to be lifted a few times then it is better to leave and if by lifting it will cause distraction to your concentration then it is better to leave it [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: To remove grass or sand which is stuck on the forehead is Makrooh if it is not causing a problem in praying the Namaz. If you remove it due to pride then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. If it is causing a problem or distraction when praying Namaz then you can remove it. To remove it after Namaz is no problem but in fact should be removed so that it would not create a feeling of pretence [Alamgiri]. In the same way if necessary it is allowed to wipe off the sweat from the forehead and all actions of Amal Qalil are allowed if it is better for the praying of Namaz, any action that has no benefit to Namaz is Makrooh [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If your nose is running in Namaz, then it is better to wipe it than to let the water drip on the floor, and if you are in the Mosque then to wipe it is necessary [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: To sit with your legs folded in Namaz is Makrooh if there is no need, and if there is a necessity then there is no problem and to sit like this outside Namaz is no problem [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. When going into the Sijdah to touch the floor with your hand before the knees touch the ground and when coming up from Sijdah the knees to be lifted before the hands is Makrooh if there is no necessity.
  • Rule: It is Makrooh to have your head higher or lower than the back when in Rukooh [Guniya].
  • Rule: It is Makrooh when standing, to lift your legs at different times.
  • Rule: If a mosquito or lice are causing you difficulty then there is no harm in killing them as long as Amal-e-Kasir is not done [Guniya, Bahar].
Praying Namaz on the Mosque’s roof is Makrooh
  • Rule: It is Makrooh to pray Namaz on the Mosque’s roof [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If someone is sat or stood up and is talking, there is no harm in praying Namaz behind him as long as your Namaz is not distracted or your attention is not disturbed. Also there is no harm in praying Namaz behind the Holy Quran or a sword or someone sleeping and it is not Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Fire in front of a Namazee
  • Rule: There is a problem by having fire in front of a Namazee and there is no problem by having a candle or light in front [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: To wave away with the hand a mosquito or fly without cause is Makrooh [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: To pray Namaz in front of anything that causes distraction to the heart is Makrooh such as jewellery etc.
  • Rule: To run because of Namaz is Makrooh [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
To break Namaz in difficulty

Situations when you are allowed to break Namaz;
Someone who is in difficulty is asking for help and is calling this Namazee, someone is drowning or will catch fire, a blind person will fall in a ditch or a person is going to fall in a well, in all these situations to break the Namaz is Wajib when this Namazee has the power to help him [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

  • Rule: If you are feeling the need to go to the toilet or you have seen enough impurity on your clothes that is allowed or the Namazee has been touched by a unknown woman, then in all three situations it is better to break the Namaz as long as the time of Jamaat time is not passing, and if you have an urge to go to the toilet then it is allowed to miss the Jamaat time, but you must not let the Namaz time pass [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: To break Namaz is allowed in order to kill a snake or an animal that will harm you and you are sure that it will.
  • Rule: It is allowed to break Namaz in order to chase after an animal that has ran away or there is a threat that a wolf will harm your goats.
To break Namaz so that you can stay away from trouble
  • Rule: If there is going to be a loss of more than one Dirham in value (approx. 30p) to yourself or someone else, for example, your milk that is boiling will over-boil or the cooking of meat will bum or a crow etc. will fly off with your food, then in these situations it is allowed to break Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If you are praying a Nafl Namaz and your mother, father, granddad or grandmother calls you but they are not aware that you are in Namaz, then you should break the Namaz and answer them [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

Posted by on November 10, 2011 in Uncategorized


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In Search of the Prophet




I found my source of adoration for you in the love and respect that the Almighty has proclaimed for you; in the honor that He bestowed upon you; in His confirmation of you as “the ultimate exemplar”; “seal of Prophets” and “mercy unto all existence”.

O Prophet of Allah, where shall I find the source of my adoration for you? I have memorized hundreds of your sayings since my youth, taught your seerah (example) to numerous students, grown a beard, used the miswaaq, sang and proudly taught others odes (qasidahs) in praise of you. But I did not find you in these rituals nor did any of these make me any more like you; rather they merely flung me into the fray of insignificant debates in the arena of so many of the sunnahless Muslims who see your sunnah only as an endless array of harsh laws and practices or as some justification for their cultural tendencies. O Allah, save me from being of those who consider the sunnah of Thy beloved as being expressed only through aimless imitations and who know Thy Prophet only as a conveyor of commands and warnings.

O Prophet of Allah, I did not truly find you in the books of fatawa (religious edicts), nor in grand seminars and conferences throughout the world, and certainly not in the harsh arguments between groups proclaiming mutually exclusive rights over you.

I found my source of adoration for you in the love and respect that the Almighty has proclaimed for you; in the honor that He bestowed upon you; in His confirmation of you as “the ultimate exemplar”; “seal of Prophets” and “mercy unto all existence”. Allah has elevated the very memory of you and has made His boundless love accessible through obedience to you.

I catch but a dimension of you through the instances of compassion you extended to others; how you played with the poor orphaned boy when other children refused to play with him, how you prolonged your prostration out of consideration that your change in posture may inconvenience or hurt your beloved grandson who had climbed on your back; how you commanded your army away from the anthill in order not to disrupt the ants’ activities; how you blessed with Paradise the sinful woman for saving the life of a cat by making the water of the well accessible with her shoes; how you intervened and prevented a man from abusing his wife by teaching him that “the best of men are those who treat their wives the best”; how you patched your clothes, mended your shoes and did your daily household chores; how you wrestled with your nephew and raced with your wife; how you joked with the kids and carried the baggage of the elderly; how you hosted the Christians of Najran in your mosque and stood up to honor the bier of a Jew. 

O Prophet of Allah, why is it that so many of us who claim to be of you refuse to be like you. We sing for you and dress like you, but do not come near fulfilling the expression of love, care and beauty that generated from yourself. Why is it that we see in you that which suits our cultural, organizational and chauvinistic interests, yet ignore the essence of what is essential to your being. Others who are not of you proclaim the multi-dimensional and multi-faceted nature of your personality. “The personality of Muhammad is most difficult to get the whole truth of it. Only a glimpse of him I can catch. What dramatic succession of picturesque scenes? There is Muhammad the Prophet; there is Muhammad the General; Muhammad the King; Muhammad the Warrior; Muhammad the Businessman; Muhammad the Preacher; Muhammad the Philosopher; Muhammad the Statesman; Muhammad the Orator; Muhammad the Reformer; Muhammad the Refuge of Orphans; Muhammad the Protector of Slaves; Muhammad the Emancipator of Women; Muhammad the Judge; Muhammad the Saint.. In all these magnificent roles and in all these departments of human activities he is equally a hero.” (Professor Ramakrishna Rao). O Prophet! Your life-example is an integrated biography, history and law; it is above all a model of excellence. 

O Prophet of Allah, you have certainly been adored by many much more worthy than I. Yet, neither the inability to capture my appreciation of you with the eloquence of poets nor my weakness as a believer debars me from qualifying as one who adores you; for in the commemoration of your being do I find the dignity and honor of my existence.

Imam Sadullah Khan is Professor of Islamic Studies at California State University in Dominguez Hills.

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Posted by on December 16, 2007 in Articles


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